Quarterly Mags: 2005 4th

A JOURNAL OF THE THERMOFORMING DIVISION OF THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS

P. O. Box 471
Lindale, Georgia 30147
CHANGE SERVICE REQUESTED

Non-Profit Org.

U.S. POSTAGE
PAID

SOCIETY OF
PLASTICS
ENGINEERS, INC

FOURTH QUARTER 2005, VOLUME 24, NUMBER 4

Our mission is to facilitate the advancement of thermoforming
technologies through education, application, promotion and research.
SPE National
Executive Director
Susan Oderwald
Direct Line: 203/740-5471
Fax: 203/775-8490
email: Seoderwald@4spe.org
THERMOFORMING DIVISION ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
Roger Kipp
McClarin Plastics
P.O. Box 486, 600 Linden Avenue
Hanover, PA 17331
(717) 637-2241 • FAX (717) 637-1728
rkipp@mcclarinplastics.com
Walt Walker
Prent Corporation
P. O. Box 471, 2225 Kennedy Road
Janesville, WI 53547-0471
(608) 754-0276 • FAX (608) 754-2410
wwalker@prent.com
Barry Shepherd
Shepherd Thermoforming & Pkging, Inc.
396 Clarance Street
Brampton, Ontario L6W1T5 CANADA
(905) 459-4545 Ext. 229 • FAX (905) 459-6746
barry@shepherd.ca
Roger Fox
The Foxmor Group, Inc.
373 South County Farm Road, Suite 202
Wheaton, IL 60187
(630) 653-2200 • FAX (630) 653-1474
rfox@foxmor.com
Stephen D. Hasselbach
CMI Plastics
P. O. Box 369
Cranbury, NJ 08512
(609) 395-1920 • FAX (609) 395-0981
steve@cmiplastics.com
CHAIR ELECT
TREASURER
SECRETARY
COUNCILOR WITH TERM
ENDING ANTEC 2006
Joe Peters
Universal Plastics
75 Whiting Farms Road
Holyoke, MA 01040
(413) 592-4791 • FAX (413) 592-6876
petersj@universalplastics.com
PRIOR CHAIR
Executive
Committee
2004 – 2006
CHAIR
Conference Coordinator
Gwen Mathis
124 Avenue D, SE
Lindale, Georgia 30147-1027
706/235-9298 • Fax: 706/295-4276
email: gmathis224@aol.com
Website: http://www.4spe.org/communities/divisions/d25.php
or www.thermoformingdivision.com
THERMOFORMING DIVISION
2004-2006
Roger Kipp
Chair
Chair Elect
Walt Walker
Secretary
Roger Fox
Treasurer
Barry Shepherd
Prior Chair
Joe Peters
Councilor
Steve Hasselbach
Nominating
Dennis Northrop
Publications
Laura Pichon
Recognition
Hal Gillam
Student Programs
Ken Griep
Finance
James Alongi
Technical
Committees
Newsletter
Editor
Gwen Mathis
ARRC
Rich Freeman
Antec
Don Hylton
Materials
Jim Armor
Equipment
Don Kruschke
Processing
Bob Porsche
Web Site
Rich
Freeman
THERMOFORMING DIVISION HOT LINE 800-233-3189
Roger Kipp, Chairman, Extension 225 at McClarin Plastics, Inc.
Membership/
Marketing
Mike Sirotnak
OPCOM/
Contract Review
Mike Lowery
Conference
Procedure
Lola Carere
Marketing
Support
Conor CarlinConference Coordination
Consultant
Gwen Mathis
2005 Conference
Milwaukee
Bob Porsche
2006 Conference
Nashville
Martin Stephenson
2007 Conference
Cincinnati
Ken Griep
Division
A JOURNAL OF THE THERMOFORMING DIVISION OF THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS
“WINNER 2003, 2004 & 2005 AWARD OF EXCELLENCE”

Winning Entries in the 15th Annual
2005 Thermoforming Parts Competition

Roll Fed Consumer

People’s Choice Award

Electronics Award

Compressor Canopy

Western Digital’s

Spencer Industries, Inc.

Portable USB Drive

812.937.4561

Prent Corporation
608.754.0276

Roll Fed Critical Barrier Award

International Submission

Perfecseal Medical Barrier

Award

“PLUG SURFACE PROPERTIES”
BY LIEBING, TESSIER, BUSH AND EYERER – see page 18
Electronic Fiber-Optic
Cable Packaging
Plexipack – Australia
Perfecseal
920.303.7000
Pressure Formed Award
Portable X-Ray Machine
Mayfield Plastics
1.800.339.3476
Thermform + Other
Process Award
Tractor Side Panel
Plastics Unlimited, Inc.
563.689.4752
Cut Sheet Electronic
Enclosure Award
Camera Cabinet for
the IVIS Imaging
System 200 Series
Freetech Plastics
510.651.9996
More Winners on Page 4
Web Site: www.thermoformingdivision.com

CHAIRMAN’S CORNER

GROWTH EXTENDS

– TEAMWORK –

EXTENDS GROWTH

The 15th Annual Conference highlighted

the extension of the growth through

teamwork accomplished by the

Thermoforming Division.

Our Conference Chairman, Bob Porsche, supported by his
Technical Chairmen, Ed Probst and Walt Walker, with superb
audio visual production provided by Walt, SPEC led the way as
Thermoforming “Spread Our Wings” in Milwaukee.

With 1,102 registrants and 101 exhibitors, this was one of our
largest Conference events ever. However, success cannot be
measured by numbers. It is the value that counts. From all the
accolades heard, at the Conference, and the feedback we have
received since, the message is clear that this was a valuable
experience for both exhibitors and attendees.

The networking opportunity was extended with the special
sponsor awards presentations at the Milwaukee Art Museum,
along with International participation including exhibitors from
five counties beyond North America.

Thank you Bob, Ed, Walt and Walt, your Committees and the
entire Board for your focus on providing a Conference with all of
the successful aspects from previous events and enough change
to make this one special.

Of course this event could not be pulled together without the
dedication of our Conference Coordinator Gwen Mathis. Thank
you, Gwen.

As Chairman, it is my responsibility to provide our membership
with the Annual Report.

I am pleased to report our business is very much in order and
we continue to be one of the most successful SPE Divisions.

The backbone of our extended growth through teamwork is
our Board of Directors. These individuals supported by their
employers volunteer their time and cover all of the expenses to
participate as Board Members. The accomplishments of this
Division that I can report here are the result of their leadership.
Please take a look at the list of Board Members on the inside
back cover to this Quarterly. Pick a Board Member and give them
a call to discuss our industry and thank them for their involvement.

Advancing Thermoforming technology through education,
application, promotion and research. This is the mission of our
Division. It is each Division member’s responsibility to participate
in the completion of this mission while the Division’s Board has
the responsibility to provide the necessary tools.

At Antec 2005 in Boston, I was privileged to accept the pride
and Outstanding Division Award for the Thermoforming
Division. The criteria for a Division to earn this Award include:

• Implementation of programs supporting scholarships
In 2005 we presented $10,000.00 in scholarships and
have provisions in place to present up to $15,000.00
annually.
• Performance in training development
During the last 12 months, Bill McConnell provided
a symposium in Dallas and Art Buckel did a
Thermoforming Seminar in Chicago in conjunction
BY ROGER KIPP, CHAIR

with Division support. Numerous other members
provide Thermoforming Workshops within their
sections.

The 2004 Conference in Indianapolis, included
1018 Attendees and over 100 Exhibitors. This
Annual Conference continues to be our flagship
event for knowledge development.

• Support of Education Programs
Equipment grants totaling $31,011.50 were
provided by our Division for Plastics’ Programs
at Universities in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and
Alabama.
The Division provides continuing support to the
National Plastics Museum’s Plastics Van Program
with over $10,000.00 committed to the Van
matching fund program during this past business
year.

• Provide Alliance Development
From input through alliance comes further
creativity and growth. Our Division nurtured
teamwork alliance with the Product Design and
Development Divisions, the Decorative and
Assembly Division, the European Thermoforming
Division and the Extrusion Division
resulting in their involvement at the Milwaukee
Conference.
• Add Value to Membership
Membership value is highlighted by our award
winning Thermoforming Quarterly.
The information packed Thermoforming website
at www.ThermoformingDivision.com.

– The “Thermoforming Tips” Manual.
– The “What Is Thermoforming” DVD.
I encourage you to please make use of these scholarships,
equipment grants, education programs and value products to
further your business or in support of an education institution
near to you. The maximum value will be gained through
involvement.

Financially the Division continues to maintain sufficient
resources necessary to meet our obligations to our mission.

• Assests at $580,000.00
• Twelve month increase at $159,649.00
• Twelve month expenses at $144,500.00
• Net profit at $15,148.00
To our Members, thank you for investing in the SPE
Thermoforming Division. Without your interest and
involvement our team would not be able to provide these
winning results. World class organizations avoid mediocrity
by promoting education, training, alliance and value.

THERMOFORMING DIVISION BOARD OF DIRECTORS
James A. Alongi – 2006

MAAC Machinery
590 Tower Boulevard
Carol Stream, IL 60188-9426
TEL (630) 665-1700
FAX (630) 665-7799
jalongi@maacmachinery.com

Machinery Committee

Jim Armor – 2008

Armor & Associates
16181 Santa Barbara Lane
Huntington Beach, CA 92649
TEL (714) 846-7000
FAX (714) 846-7001
jimarmor@aol.com

Materials Committee

Phil S. Barhouse – 2006

Creative Forming
100 Creative Way

P.O. Box 128
Ripon, WI 54971
TEL (920) 748-1119
FAX (920) 748-9466
phil.barhouse@creativeforming.com
Materials Committee

Michael Book – 2007

C&K Plastics
159 Liberty Street
Metuchen, NJ 08840
TEL (732) 549-0011
FAX (732) 549-1889
mbook@candkplastics.com

Processing Committee

Arthur Buckel – 2008

McConnell Co., Inc.
3452 Bayonne Drive
San Diego, CA 92109
TEL (858) 273-9620
FAX (858) 273-6837
artbuckel@thermoforming.com

Processing Committee

Lola Carere – 2008

Thermopro, Inc.
1600 Distribution Drive
Suite D
Duluth, GA 30097
TEL (678) 957-3220
FAX (678) 475-1747
lcarere@thermopro.com

Materials Committee

Conor Carlin – 2008

Sencorp, Inc.
400 Kidd’s Hill Road
Hyannis, MA 02601
TEL (310) 487-3287
FAX (323) 874-7849
ccarlin@sencorp-inc.com

Machinery Committee

Bob Carrier – 2006

C & K Plastics
159 Liberty Street
Metuchen, NJ 08840
TEL (732) 549-0011 EXT. 203
FAX (732) 549-1889
bob@candkplastics.com

Processing Committee

Richard Freeman – 2006

Freetech Plastics
2211 Warm Springs Court
Fremont, CA 94539
TEL (510) 651-9996
FAX (510) 651-9917
rfree@freetechplastics.com

Processing Committee

Hal Gilham – 2007

Productive Plastics, Inc.
103 West Park Drive
Mt. Laurel, NJ 08045
TEL (856) 778-4300
FAX (856) 234-3310
halg@productiveplastics.com

Processing Committee

Ken Griep – 2008 Vin McElhone – 2007 Mike Sirotnak – 2007

Portage Casting & Mold, Inc.

Stand-Up Plastics

Solar Products
2901 Portage Road

5 Fordham Trail

228 Wanaque Ave.
Portage, WI 53901

Old Saybrook, CT 06475

Pompton Lakes, NJ 07442
TEL (608) 742-7137

TEL (860) 395-5699

TEL (973) 248-9370
FAX (608) 742-2199

FAX (860) 395-4732

FAX (973) 835-7856
ken@pcmwi.com

vjmpacesales@aol.com

msirotnak@solarproducts.com

Machinery Committee

Materials Committee

Machinery Committee

Donald C. Hylton – 2007

Stephen R. Murrill – 2006

Walt Speck – 2007

646 Holyfield Highway

Profile Plastics Corp.

Speck Plastics, Inc.
Fairburn, GA 30213

65 S. Waukegan

P. O. Box 421
TEL (678) 772-5008
Lake Bluff, IL 60044

Nazareth, PA 18064
don@thermoforming.com

TEL (847) 604-5100 EXT. 21

TEL (610) 759-1807

Materials Committee

FAX (847) 604-8030

FAX (610) 759-3916
SMurrill@thermoform.com

wspeck@speckplastics.com

Bill Kent – 2008

Processing Committee

Processing Committee

Brown Machine

330 North Ross Street

Dennis Northrop – 2006

Dr. Martin J. Stephenson, Ph.D. –

Beaverton, MI 48612-0434

Avery Dennison

2006

TEL (989) 435-7741

Automotive Division

Placon Corporation
FAX (989) 435-2821

650 W. 67th Avenue

6096 McKee Road
bill.kent@brown-machine.com

Schererville, IN 46375-1390

Madison, WI 53719-5114

Machinery Committee

TEL (219) 322-5030

TEL (608) 275-7215
FAX (219) 322-2623

TEL (800) 541-1535

Don Kruschke – 2007

Dennis.Northrop@averydennison.com

FAX (608) 271-3162

Stopol, Inc.

Materials Committee

mstephenson@placon.com

31875 Solon Road

Materials Committee

Solon, OH 44139

Laura Pichon – 2008

TEL (440) 498-4000

Ex-Tech Plastics

Jay Waddell – 2008

FAX (440) 498-4001

P.O. Box 576
Plastic Concepts & Innovations,
donk@Stopol.com

11413 Burlington Road

LLC

Machinery Committee

Richmond, IL 60071

443 Long Point Road
TEL (815) 678-2131 Ext. 624

Suite H

Mike Lowery – 2007

FAX (815) 678-4248

Mt. Pleasant, SC 29464

Premier Plastics

lpichon@extechplastics.com

TEL (843) 971-7833

9680 S. Oakwood Park Dr.

Materials Committee

FAX (843) 216-6151

Franklin, WI 53132

jwaddell@plasticoncepts.com

TEL (414) 423-5940 Ext 102

Robert G. Porsche – 2006

Processing Committee

FAX (414) 423-5930

General Plastics, Inc.
mikel@lowerytech.com

2609 West Mill Road

Brian Winton – 2007

Processing Committee

Milwaukee, WI 53209

Modern Machinery
TEL (414) 351-1000

P. O. Box 423
Wm. K. McConnell, Jr. – 2008

FAX (414) 351-1284

Beaverton, MI 48612-0423

McConnell Co., Inc.

bob@genplas.com

TEL (989) 435-9071

3030 Sandage St.

Processing Committee

FAX (989) 435-3940

P.O. Box 11512
bwinton@modernmachineinc.com

Fort Worth, TX 76110

Brian Ray – 2008

Machinery Committee

TEL (817) 926-8287

Ray Products
FAX (817) 926-8298

1700 Chablis Avenue
billmc@thermoforming.com

Ontario, CA 91761

Materials Committee

TEL (909) 390-9906
FAX (909) 390-9984
brianr@rayplastics.com

Machinery Committee

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Contents

Thermoforming

®

Q U A R T E R L Y

TECHNICAL SECTION

Lead Technical Article:

Investigation of Surface Properties of Pre-Stretching Plugs …………………………………18

Industry Practice:

New CO2 Laser Cutting Technology …………………………………………………………………….23

Industry Practice:

History of Thermoforming – Part II……………………………………………………………………..25

Industry Practice:

Design of Experiments – An Overview ………………………………………………………………..28

University News:

University of Wisconsin – Platteville ……………………………………………………………………31

Thermoforming 101:

The Ubiquitous Draw Ratio ………………………………………………………………………………..32

Book Review:

Polyolefins: Processing, Structure Development and Properties …………………………..34

DIVISION ACTIVITIES

Chairman’s Corner …………………………………………………………Inside Front Cover
Membership Memo: High Life in Milwaukee…………………………………………… 2
New Members ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2005 Conference ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4-12
Winter Board Meeting Schedule …………………………………………………………… 16
Council Report …………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
Membership Application ……………………………………………………………………… 43
Index of Sponsors ………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Board of Directors List…………………………………………………….Inside Back Cover

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Radiant Efficiency = Energy Savings

You can’t have one without the other!

Solar Products can offer you
maximum energy savings along with:

Lower cycle rates • Lower reject rates
Greater heater life • Greater oven uniformity

Don’t be fooled by claims of outrageous energy
savings. Ask your heater supplier to provide
documented proof of radiant efficiency.

Ask for Solar Products on your next new machine
purchase or for that old machine retrofit.

Tel (973) 248-9370
Fax (973) 835-7856

228 Wanaque Ave., Pompton Lake, NJ 07442 www.solarproducts.com

A NOTE TO
PROSPECTIVE
AUTHORS

TFQ is an “equal opportunity”
publisher! You will note that we have
several categories of technical articles,
ranging from the super-high tech
(sometimes with equations!), to
industry practice articles, to book
reviews, how to articles, tutorial
articles, and so on. Got an article that
doesn’t seem to fit in these categories?
Send it to Jim Throne, Technical Editor,
anyway. He’ll fit it in! He promises. [By
the way, if you are submitting an
article, Jim would appreciate it on
CD-ROM in DOC format. All graphs
and photos should be black and white
and of sufficient size and contrast to
be scannable. Thanks.]

Thermoforming

®

QUARTERLY

A JOURNAL PUBLISHED EACH CALENDAR
QUARTER BY THE THERMOFORMING DIVISION
OF THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS

Editor

Gwen Mathis

(706) 235-9298 • Fax (706) 295-4276
gmathis224@aol.com
Technical Editor

Dr. James Throne

Sherwood Technologies, Inc.
1797 Santa Barbara Drive
Dunedin, FL 34698-3347
1-800-273-6370 • Fax (727) 734-5081
throne@foamandform.com
jthrone@tampabay.rr.com

Sponsorships

Laura Pichon

(815) 678-2131 Ext. 624
Fax (815) 678-4248
lpichon@extechplastics.com
Thermoforming Quarterly® is published four times annually
as an informational and educational bulletin
to the members of the Society of Plastics
Engineers, Thermoforming Division, and the
thermoforming industry. The name, “Thermoforming
Quarterly®” and its logotype, are registered trademarks
of the Thermoforming Division of the Society
of Plastics Engineers, Inc. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without prior written permission of the publisher,
copyright holder. Opinions of the authors are their
own, and the publishers cannot be held responsible
for opinions or representations of any unsolicited
material. Printed in the U.S.A.

Thermoforming Quarterly® is registered in the US
Patent and Trademark Office (Registration no.
2,229,747).

1
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

MEMBERSHIP MEMO

High Life
in Milwaukee

BY MIKE SIROTNAK, MEMBERSHIP CHAIRMAN

I
I
f you missed the 15th Annual

given topics. Don’t just complain

cating the industry from start to fin-
Thermoforming Conference in

behind people’s backs, get involved.

ish. The plant tours were a huge
Milwaukee, you missed one of the

The exhibit floor was very promis

success. Steve Murrill of Profile
best overall conferences ever! Re

ing. It’s great hearing people mak-

Plastics and Walt Walker of Prent
turning to Milwaukee offered a

ing deals and discussing new

Corporation need to be recognized
great atmosphere and plenty to do.

projects. Our exhibit floor is unique

for opening their facilities to this in-
Bob Porsche, Conference Chair

because of the way we all work

dustry. Stopol, Inc. and MAAC
man, and Gwen Mathis, Confer

together to educate and help the

Machinery, along with all the sponence
Coordinator, took advantage

customer. Joe Peters did an out

sors, did a nice job on the casino
of everything Milwaukee

night to raise money for the
had to offer. Many of us at

scholarship funds.
tended the new and im-MEMBERSHIP REPORT I want to encourage all of
proved Miller Park to take in

you to continue to support

as of 9/30/05

a Brewers game. The new

this Division and the SPE as
ballpark was awesome and

a whole. Remember that
the atmosphere was great. Primary Paid …………………..1,161 there is numerous divi-
The Thermoformer of the

sions within SPE and some
Secondary Paid ………………….476 of them can be secondary

Year dinner held at the Milwaukee
Art Museum was

division for you at a mini-

Total Membership …………..1,637

fantastic. Bob and Gwen

mal cost.
took a huge chance trying

Nashville 2006 will be

Goal as of 6/30/2006 ………2,000

something different and it

your opportunity to make
really paid off.

up for missing Milwaukee.
The Technical Program is always

standing job on the Parts Competi-

Nashville is always a great spot for
the most difficult aspect of the Con

tion and the participants should be

a conference. Dr. Martin
ference to put together. Ed Probst

congratulated. It is always refresh-

Stephenson is working hard to put
and Walt Walker did an outstand

ing seeing the youth of our indus

together a conference that can top
ing job. The challenge of putting to

try at the show. Watching the

2005. Please try to support the techgether
a fresh and pertinent

college students walk from booth to

nical sessions and the parts compeprogram
is daunting. Trying to con

booth to discuss our industry is

tition.
vince our industry to speak in front

uplifting. Our scholarship program

I feel we are finally back on track
of a couple of hundred people is

is right on the mark; Ken Griep is

and you don’t want to miss out.

like pulling teeth. I encourage doing a great job. Watching the God bless America!
everyone to get involved in the school children at the Plastics Van
Technical Program, especially never gets old. It really shows what
those of you who gripe about the the whole Division is all about, edu-

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 2

To Our New Members

Patrick Allard
Plastique Art
Ste Claire, Canada

Jesus Avelar

Laminados
Extruidos
Plasticos

Guadalajara,

Mexico
Jeff Barker
Tooling

Technologies
Fort Loramie,

Ohio
Bill Bowman
DALB
Kearneysville,

West Virginia
Scott D. Boyd
Whirlpool
Corporation
Evansville,
Indiana
William T. Boyd
William Wrigley

Company
Chicago, Illinois
Brian Brandner

TI Automotive
Systems
Auburn Hills,

Michigan
Ray Brooks
George Utz, Inc.
Columbus,

Indiana
Scott Burns
Kleerdex
Company
Mt. Laurel, New
Jersey
Robert C.
Chapieski
Sabert
Corporation
Sayreville, New
Jersey
Andrew J. Curello
BIC Corporation
Milford,
Connecticut

Brian H. Czopedk
GE Plastics
Southfield,

Michigan
Phillip Driskill
Lake Geneva,
Wisconsin
Mark Faber
Five Star Race Car
Bodies
Twin Lakes,
Wisconsin
Micha L. Fulgham

J. McFall &
Associates
Ann Arbor,
Michigan
Art Giannini
Winpak Portion

Packaging, Inc.
Chicago Heights,
Illinois
Kurt E.
Gruenewald

Watkins
Manufacturing
Corporation

Vista, California
Sameh K.
Guirguis
Sabert
Corporation
Sayreville, New
Jersey
Hedwig
Herberger
UNIPA
Kunststofftechnik
GmbH
Neustadt,
Germany
Eric Hernandez
Thermo King of
Puerto Rico
Arecibo, Puerto
Rico
Brian A. Heus
Emerald Graphics
Plymouth,
Wisconsin

Thomas R.

Holland
DALB
Kearneysville,

West Virginia
Bradford Joslyn
Joslyn
Manufacturing

Co., Inc.
Macadonia, Ohio
Edward A.

Kowalski
Interstate Pipe
Fabricators
Marinette,

Wisconsin
Mark A. Laingen
Bloomington,

Illinois
Aton Mahdi

Oakwood Group
Taylor, Michigan
Rigel R. Millan

Sabert
Corporation
Sayreville, New
Jersey
Thomas J. Murray,

Jr.
CMT Materials
Attleboro,

Massachusetts
Rafael Ortiz
Thermo King of
Puerto Rico
Areciho, Puerto
Rico
Doug Parmele
Modern
Machinery
Beaverton,
Michigan
James Parris
Sweetheart Cup
Company
Owings Mill,
Maryland

Rodrigo Procacci

Mike Shea

Robert D. Van
Sukano Polymers

Flexpak

Winter, Jr.
Corporation

Corporation

Van Winter
Duncan, South

Phoenix, Arizona

Associates
Carolina

Cumberland,

Dirk Smith

Rhode Island

Hans Dieter Ben

Boca Raton,
Propfe

Florida

Thomas Weigl
Interplast SA De

Sukano Products

Brett A. Stephens

CV

AG

Colborne, Canada

San Juan, Mexico

Schindellegi,

Denis Tanjic

Switzerland

Corey Rogers

Winpak Portion

Federal Foam

Packaging, Inc.

Technologies

Chicago Heights,

New Richmond,

Illinois

Wisconsin

WHY JOIN?

It has never been more important to
be a member of your professional
society than now, in the current
climate of change and volatility in the
plastics industry. Now, more than ever,
the information you access and the
personal networks you create can and
will directly impact your future and
your career.

Active membership in SPE:

• keeps you current
• keeps you informed
• keeps you connected
The question really isn’t
“why join?” but …

WHY NOT?

3
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2005 THERMOFORMING PAR

P
P
arts on display in the Parts Competition and
Showcase are a perennial highlight of the
Thermoforming Conference. Made up of six industry
professionals from the cut sheet and roll fed industries,
the competition’s panel of judges selected winners
based on criteria that included technical mastery,
creativity, surface finish, market viability, originality,
material difficulty, mold complexity, and secondary
operations. The People’s Choice Award goes
to the entry receiving the greatest number of votes
cast by Conference attendees and exhibitors. Following
is a description of the award-winning parts, listed
according to competition category.

People’s Choice Award – Compressor Canopy

The Ingersoll-Rand AirSource portable air compressor
canopy, made of Solvay Engineered Polymers E3000
TPO custom-colored material, is virtually indestructible,
corrosion and chemical resistant, paintable,
and sound deadening, and features good low-temperature
impact resistance and high UV resistance. In
addition to being aerodynamic, the canopy opens to
90° for excellent service access to the compressor
without having to remove the canopy. The lightweight
canopy (1850 lbs.) is chip and dent resistant and lowers
the compressor’s center of gravity, making the unit
more fuel efficient and stable when being towed. The
large sectional 76 x 46 x 31-inch integrated four-piece
structural canopy is twin-sheet thermoformed by
Spencer Industries. Tooling Technology built the
molds.
Spencer Industries, Inc., 812.937.4561
www.spencerindustries.com

* picture featured on front page *

Roll Fed Competition

Most Unique Package Award

The DePuy Orthopaedics Tempfix External Fixation
System package consists of five individual
thermoformed parts. Each of three modular inner trays
carries one of four different fixation devices, along
with the tools for their application. One universal
cover snap-fits onto each of the modular inner trays,
while one universal outer tray holds and protects any
of the inner/cover combinations. Each product tray
with cover is loaded into the sealable outer tray for
sterilization. The cover provides an area for a graphic
feature. All inner trays and cover are formed from
.040 Blue Tint PETG. The outer tray is formed from
.045 Blue Tint PETG Goex Corp. supplies the materials.
Prent Corp., 608.754.0276; www.prent.com

Consumer Electronics Award

The packaging for Western Digital’s Portable USB
Drive is a unique set of four thermoforms, each with
a specific role to play in creating the package. Two
static dissipative inner thermoforms snap together to
secure the hard drive inside trays that are sealed together
using radio frequency (RF). The inner parts
are made from 0.020-inch clear Pentastat ASKPET 56
supplied by Klockner Pentaplast of America, Inc., and
the trays are made from 0.030-inch clear GAG supplied
by Thai Kodama Co. Ltd. ASKPET 56 offers ESD
protection for the actual product, and the use of GAG
provides the ability to RF seal. This 100% recyclable
plastic design meets product-protection requirements
while providing product visibility, ESD protection,
and shelf appeal. The packages, which afford both
front and back views of the product, require less shipping
space because they interlock when every other
one is rotated 180° in the shipping carton.
Perfecseal (A Bemis Co.); 920.303.7000
www.perfecseal.com

* picture featured on front page *

International Submission Award

Designed by Plexipack Packaging Services (a company
located in Australia), the fiber-optic cable packaging
was required to hold eight optic cables separately,
load them easily, and ensure that the fragile
connectors were protected throughout transport and
handling. The end user is able to remove each cable
with ease without tangling or damaging the connectors.
The package lid fits snugly and can be easily
removed without disturbing the cables. The cable
packaging is constructed from 0.6 Black Antistatic
HIPS from Masrac Plastics in Australia.
Plexipack Packaging Services; phone 03.10.2005
www.plexipack.com.au

* picture featured on front page *

Industrial Packaging Award

The Electronic Dunnage
Tray was designed and
manufactured by Plexipack
Packaging Services to provide
packaging for components
manufactured for the
export trade and for prod

uct protection during overseas
transportation. In addition to accommodating the
packaging of a greater number of parts, the redesigned
trays nest inside each other, reducing the requirement
for storage space. When loaded, the trays can be

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 4

RTS COMPETITION WINNERS

stacked on top of each other without damage to the
components in the trays beneath. The packaging is
constructed from 0.9 Black Antistatic HIPS from
Masrac Plastics in Australia.

Plexipack Packaging Services; phone 03.10.2005

Consumer Houseware Award

These unique plastic drink
tops, in 8 mm and 12 mm
sizes, were designed to hold
a typically sized CD/DVD and
to simultaneously provide a
perfect fit to cover standard
soda cups. Used as promotional
incentives by movie theaters, fast-food chains,
convenience stores, and entertainment events where
drinks are sold, the thermoformed beverage lid/CD/
DVD holders are strong enough to protect the enclosed
disk from hazards – e.g., extreme temperatures, liquids,
and rough handling. The clear lids allow the
CD/DVD to show through, and they are able to accommodate
various straw sizes while preventing beverage
contact with the CD. Two styles of lids are available:
a two-piece and a clamshell. The CD rests on
the lower piece of the lid, and a top piece snaps over
it, protecting the disc and preventing any leakage of
liquid from the cup. The lid can be removed from the
cup with a pull-tab.

Creative Forming, Inc.; 800.278.8483
www.creativeforming.com

Consumer Packaging Award

The retail air freshener lidand-
base package assembly was
designed to hold and display an
air freshening device, air freshening
disk, AC adapter, and accompanying
literature. Intended
to protect the contents
during shipping, the package
also enables the consumer to view each component
of the device. Because of the package shape, the parts
were processed on large, roll-fed matched metal
equipment. The female lid was a relatively deep draw
for a roll-fed male part with deep inner cavities. Design
challenges involved creation of smooth exterior
lines, multiple oblique internal product fit and capture,
areas for graphic display, and an irregular lidto-
base fit.

Creative Forming, Inc.; 800.278.8483
www.creativeforming.com

Cut Sheet Competition

Electronic Enclosure Award

The camera cabinet for the IVIS Imaging System
200 Series was designed by Bridge Design in collaboration
with engineers from Xenogen Corp. and
Freetech Plastics. The unit body is composed of
Spartech R59 (FR-Rigid ABS/PVC) and general-purpose
polycarbonate from Sheffield Plastics is used to
create the deep-draw dome that sits atop the unit.
This part features undercuts for attachment features
and is textured to partially to partially conceal equipment
it covers. Tooling, designed and developed by
Freetech Plastics, includes radical undercut features
and badge placement ID contours.

The IVIS Imaging System 200 Series is a fully integrated
fluorescent/bioluminescent spectral imaging
unit capable of creating 3D surface topography using
Xenogen Corp.’s new technology called in vivo photonic
imaging. The technology, pioneered by scientists
from Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, enables
researchers to use real-time imaging to observe and
record cellular and genetic activity within a living
organism, in this case a live mouse. Previously, the
organism would have been killed and dissected, thus
altering the organism and making research results
unreliable. The IVIS Imaging System 200 Series is
utilized in genome research and in pharmaceutical
and biotechnology R&D to help scientists better understand
drug metabolism.
Freetech Plastics, Inc.; 510.651.9996
www.freetechplastics.com

* picture featured on front page *

Automotive Award

The front
bumper fascia,
also called a
bumper cover, is
used as an exterior

trim ornament for most passenger vehicles and light
trucks. It conceals the structural steel bumper beam
and carries a number of components, including lighting
and a lower air dam. Traditionally injectionmolded
and painted, this fascia is reported to be the
first full fascia produced as original equipment for
an OEM vehicle program that utilizes a thermoformed
Class A paint film/TPO laminate, a process that eliminates
the need for injection molding and painting.
The substrate is made from TPO produced by Solvay
Engineered Polymers, and Soliant produces the paint

(continued on next page)

5
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

film; the TPO is extruded and laminated to the paint
film by Southtech Plastics. Parker Tooling and Design
produced the mold for the fascia.

Meridian Automotive Systems; 313.253.3572
www.meridianautosystems.com

Twin Sheet Award

The instrument tray, an

elective medical-device tray
used on an ultrasound cart,
was designed by Philips
Medical Systems. The iE33

echocardiography system
and other Philips’ systems utilize the award-winning
tray. The twin sheet process was chosen because it
produces a lightweight, hollow tray that offers superior
rigidity. Pressure forming was incorporated into
the twin-sheet process in order to ensure a design
capable of meeting the challenges of cantilevered lods
and impact forces. Additionally, pressure forming
offers the ability to insert-mold threaded nutserts
rather than installing them in a costly secondary operation.
This procedure was especially challenging
as a result of the close proximity of adjacent walls,
which restricted material flow. A style line that eliminated
the usually visible pinch line improved the
tray’s aesthetics, and the entire surface of the pressure-
formed tray features molded-in texture. Customcolored
Kydex acrylic/PVC eliminates the need for
paint, and results in cost savings and reduced time
to market.

Specialty Manufacturing, Inc.; 800.491.1652 or
858.450.1591; www.smi-mfg.com

Pressure Formed Award

The front feet are two of the nine parts made by
Mayfield Plastics for Hologic, Inc.’s portable X-ray
machine. The feet are pressure formed from 0.250inch
thick Kydex, supplied by Kleerdex Co. They are
custom colored with a textured-mold finish. Portage
Casting and Mold, Inc. made tooling, and texturing
was done by Mold-Tech. Trim jigs, fixtures, and programming
were done in-house.
Mayfield Plastics, Inc.; 800.339.3476 or 508.865.8150
www.mayfieldplastics.com

* picture featured on front page *

Industrial Application Award

The radome, a part for communication equipment
on boats and other marine applications, is pressureformed
from 0.350-inch thick ABS supplied by

2005 THERMOFORMING PAR

Spartech Plastics. Finished thickness of
the part is critical. Portage Casting and
Mold, Inc. made tooling. The trim jogs,
fixtures, CNC programming, and painting
and finishing were done in-house.

Mayfield Plastics, Inc.; 800.339.3476 or 508.865.8150
www.mayfieldplastics.com

Vacuum Formed Award

The American Standard
whirlpool bathing tub and integral
front apron panel are
formed from one sheet of acrylic
material, supplied by Aristech
Acrylics. Designed for an extradeep
soak with a spacious interior, the tub is outfitted
with “comfort jets” that enable a clean, updated
look and adjustable flow rate. Toolmaker was Portage
Casting & Mold.

American Standard; 732.369.4037
www.americanstandard.com

Consumer Electronic Award

The rear housing for a
monitor was designed to
enable the easy relocation
of a large monitor. The part
is also used on a portable
X-ray machine. It is pressure
formed from two
sheets of 0.156 Kydex, supplied by Kleerdex Co., and
Portage Casting and Mold, Inc. made the tooling. The
trim jigs, fixtures, CNC programming, and painting
and finishing were done in-house.

Mayfield Plastics, Inc.; 800.339.3476 or 508.865.8150
www.mayfieldplastics.com

Recreational Award

The five-passenger, 7’9″
long pedal boat is said to be
one of the largest and most
complex parts manufactured
by the twin-sheet
thermoforming process.
Molding takes place on a fourstation
rotary thermoforming machine equipped with
gas burners. The aluminum mold with cast-in cooling
lines, from Modelage Simon, Inc. is 105 inches
long x 74 inches wide x 44 inches high. As a result of
the complexity of the piece and the high draw ratio

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 6

RTS COMPETITION WINNERS

required in some areas, plugs are needed to mold
some parts of the piece. Provisions for adequate flotation
of the boat are included during the molding
process. Because of the extraordinary size and weight
of the part, special equipment had to be designed for
trimming and assembly. The material used was 0.250
HMWPE sheet supplied by Petromont S.E.C.

Pelican International, Inc.; 450.664.1222 or
800.463.6960; www.pelicansport.com

Multipart Award

The panoramic analog dental X-ray
enclosure required a total of nine parts
(12 parts for the digital model), all of
which were pressure formed into machined
aluminum water-cooled, textured
molds. The texturing of molds
allows for a consistent part finish for
all parts and eliminates evidence of
sink marks, knit lines, and gate marks
that are typically associated with injection molding.
Clean part-to-part fit is accomplished with undercuts
in the molds, which are pneumatically articulated
with solenoids tied into the digital programming logic
of the forming machines. Because of the elliptical
contours of the enclosure’s design, the undercuts are
broken into multiple sections for each side of the
parts. Tight process control of molded-in color and
texture for consistent part-to-part appearance was
required. The material used was 0.187 to 0.375 gauge
Kydex T, supplied by Kleerdex Co.

Profile Plastics; 800.252.6458 or 330.877.1771
www.profileplastics.com

Point-of-Purchase Award

The 50 x 42-inch styrene Miller
Lite Nascar hood is a point-of-purchase
display advertisement supplied
to distributors of Miller’s products
to restaurants and bars. The
hood is preprinted in four-color process
with a protective, glossy clear coat, formed in a
large three-station rotary, and CNC trimmed to size.
It is produced by General Plastics, a custom
thermoformer that makes parts for the point-of-purchase
and OEM industries.

General Plastics, Inc.; 414.351.1000
www.genplas.com

Thermoform + Other Process Award

The tractor side panel air scoop fits on the rear side
of a combine used to harvest crops such as soybeans
or corn. Made from an innovative process called TEC
(Tool-less Engineered Composites), the lightweight air
scoop features a thin skin (about 0.090-inch thick)
that is formed on a standard thermoform tool. The
thermoformed skin is placed in a simple holding fixture,
where it is backed with a composite, using a
vacuum-bag type process. The system combines the
best properties of thermoformed parts with those of
composite parts. There is no requirement to invest in
the tooling typically associated with the manufacture
of a composite. High impact resistance (Izod > 18 ft
lb/inch), strength, UV resistance, and molded-in color
are advantages of the TEC process. The process can
produce several parts per hour.
Plastics Unlimited, Inc.; 563.689.4752
www.plasticsunlimited.net

* picture featured on front page *

THERMOFORMING
DIVISION CONFERENCE
MILWAUKEE 2005
7ThermoformingQUARTERLY

U
U
nder the banner of the Conference
theme,: “Spreading
Our Wings,” more than 1,100 attendees
gathered September 24th27th
in Milwaukee’s Midwest
Airlines Convention Center for
the 15th Annual SPE Thermoforming
Division Conference. The
Conference featured 100 exhibits
representing plastics industry
manufacturers and service providers
worldwide; plant tours
showing industry companies –
Profile Plastics, Prent Corp., and
Goex Corp. – in action; workshops;
a technical program; and
the Parts Competition and Showcase.
Exclusive to this year’s Conference
was a Sponsor
Appreciation Dinner held at the
spectacular Milwaukee Art Museum
on the shores of Lake Michigan,
followed by Casino Night at
the Conference headquarters hotel.
All proceeds from that festivity
go directly to the SPE
Thermoforming Scholarship
Fund. In addition to providing
student scholarships and grants
for the purchase of thermoforming
equipment to universities that
offer plastics engineering programs,
the Thermoforming Division
recently contributed $45,000
to the National Plastics Center
and Museum in Leominster,
Mass., for the purchase of a new
PlastiVan. The Center’s PlastiVan
travels throughout the United
States to introduce students, educators,
and the public to the chemistry,
history, processing, and
environmental issues associated
with plastics. ¦

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 8

SPE’S THE

ERMOFORMING 2005 … ERMOFORMING 2005 …
SPREADING
OUR
WINGS

at the

15TH
ANNUAL
CONFERENCE

in
MILWAUKEE

9
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

CARERE RECEIVES LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD

L
L
ola Carere’s job history

proves that relation

ships count in the close-knit

world of thermoforming, es

pecially the cut-sheet custom

variety.

Carere was named the

winner of the Lifetime

Achievement Award on Sep

tember 25th at the 2005

Thermoforming Conference.
Some tears flowed, but she was among friends.

A long-time Board of Directors member for the
Society of Plastics Engineers’ Thermoforming Division,
Carere was in constant motion in Milwaukee,
checking on the registration table, monitoring the presentations
and walking the show floor.

Her thermoforming career has been spent working
in the Southeast. All but one of her thermoforming
employers have been small companies.

Her first thermoforming job came in 1984, when
she became purchasing manager for Allied Plastics
Inc. of Tucker, Ga. She spent a decade at Allied, getting
promoted to production control manager and
then becoming regional sales manager.

From 1994-99, Carere was sales coordinator for
Multiplastics Inc. in Mount Pleasant, S.C. Then she
moved to a big company, becoming Southeast account
manager for St. Paul, Minn.-based TPI, a unit of
Wilbert Inc.

She worked at TPI from 1999-2002, then became
sales manager of Multiplastics Georgia Inc. in
Suwanee, Ga., a sister company of Multiplastics.

The whole time, she kept in touch with one of her
largest accounts, Gould LLC, a Duluth, Ga.-based
maker of materials-handling bins and office products
like literature display racks.

“First, they were just buying the products and
when they were doing that, I was at Allied Plastics
and they were my customer. And I moved to
Multiplastics because they moved their business
there,” Carere said.

In the late 1990s, Gould decided to start
thermoforming its own parts. Then in January of this
year, Gould sold its line of display racks to Safco Products
Co., changed its name to ThermoPro Inc. and
reinvented itself from captive to a custom
thermoformer.

Guess who they called to handle sales? Carere, who
became a ThermoPro account executive.

In thermoforming, everybody knows everybody,
Carere explained. “I would say the average
thermoformer probably does somewhere between $5
[million] and $10 million a year. There are a lot of
family businesses,” she said.

Carere’s dedication to the Thermoforming Division
is a big reason she won the Lifetime Achievement
Award. She joined SPE in 1987 and quickly volunteered
to help out at the Southern Section, covering
Georgia, Alabama and part of South Carolina. She
has served on the Thermoforming Division’s Board
of Directors since 1994.

The 2005 Conference, held September 24th-27th in
Milwaukee, brought back intense memories for
Carere and other thermoformers. The last time the
SPE Thermoforming Division held its Conference in
Milwaukee was September 15th-18th of 2001 – just a
few days after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

On September 11th, Carere, who was Chairwoman
of the Thermoforming Division, was headed to the
Atlanta Airport with Conference Coordinator Gwen
Mathis. “We kept trying to get flights out,” Carere
said. “You know, we felt like we needed to be here in
Milwaukee. So we actually rented a car and drove to
Milwaukee.”

Heads spinning with emotion at the tragedy, they
headed north. Should the 2001 Conference be cancelled?

“We didn’t know what to think, but we needed to
get there and make a decision, because people had
already shipped machinery,” Carere said. “It was
crazy.”

A good number of other Board members made it
to Milwaukee too.

“It was hard, but the Executive Committee and the
Conference Chair, we all sat around the table and took
a vote on whether we should have it or not.”

They decided to go ahead – and ended up with a
respectable attendance of about 750. Attendees got a
free pass to the following year’s Conference and Division
leaders issued credits to sponsors. They
donated proceeds to the American Red Cross.

“We caught a lot of grief for having it, but a lot of
people supported us, too,” Carere said. ¦

Reprinted with permission from
Plastics News, Bill Bregar

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 10

Throne in India

J
J
im Throne was invited by the Indian Plastics Institute
to present a plenary overview of the thermoforming
industry to more than 400 technologists at the IPI
meetings in Mumbai (Bombay) on March 25th and in
Delhi on March 28th. Jim began his several-hour
presentation by summarizing the history of
thermoforming. He then outlined new developments in
materials, machinery, markets, mold and part design,
and controls. Reliance Industries Ltd., Supreme
Petrochem Ltd., Irwin Research and Development Inc.,
and Wonderpack Industries PVT. Ltd. sponsored his

presentations. During his ten-day stay in India, he
discussed thermoforming technology with more than a dozen thermoformers, machinery
builders, and material suppliers, many seeking cooperative efforts with North American
companies.

If you wish to learn more about thermoforming opportunities in India, Jim can be reached at
Sherwood Technologies, Inc., Dunedin Florida, 1-727-734-5081 or at throne@foamandform.com.

¦

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Presents:
MovingBeyondtheBasicsATwoDaySeminaronAdvancedHeavyGaugeThermoformingdesignedtoprovideanin-depthlookatallaspectsofthethermoformingprocesswhilehighlightingadvancedmaterialsWHENWHERECost:$395.00perperson:
IncludesInstructionalMaterialsandrefreshmentsCourseOutline,RegistrationFormsandsponsorsatwww.plasticoncepts.comJune14-15LandInstruments,Newtown,PAJuly19-20PortageCasting&Molds,Portage,WIAug16-17ComfortSuites,Elkhart,INOct18-19Stopol/BertramInnAuroraOHOct25-26SouthTechPlastics,NewBernNCNov15-16SolvayEng.Polymers,MansfieldTXDec13-14PrimexOakwoodPlant,AtlantaGA
Past Thermoformers
of the Year Honored
at Conference

In attendance were, front row, L-R: 1999
Art Buckel, McConnell Co.; 1991 Stan
Rosen, Mold Systems; 2005 Manfred
Jacob, Jacob Composites; 2004 Steve
Hasselbach, CMI Plastics. Back row,
L-R: 2003 Bill Benjamin, Benjamin
Mfg.; 1982 Bill McConnell, McConnell
Co.; 1993 John Grundy, Profile Plastics;
2000 Dr. James Throne, Sherwood
Technologies; 2001 Joe Pregont, Prent
Corp.; and 2002 Steven Sweig, Profile
Plastics.

11ThermoformingQUARTERLY

Also shown are members of the European Thermoforming
Board in attendance to support Mr. Jacob, who is one of the
founding members of the European Thermoforming Division.

SPE Student Chapter Members
Attending 2005 Conference

SPE Student Chapter Members attending the Thermoforming
Conference widen career horizons by sitting in on Conference
seminars and sessions, meeting industry professionals, and
lending a hand to provide assistance to Conference staff. This
group of students and their professor from Pittsburg State
University was one of several student groups attending the
Conference. Pictured from left to right: Lucas Stallbaumer;
Bernice Nzioke; Kim Acinger; Adrienne Wiltse; Dr. Christopher

C. Ibeh, Professor, Plastics Engineering Technology; and Rama
Etekallapalli.
James Alongi Receives
“Outstanding Board Member Award”

Hal Gilham, Awards
Chair, is shown
presenting James
Alongi with the 2005
“Outstanding Board
Member” award.

Jack Hill Receives Division
“Outstanding Achievement Award”

Walt Walker, Vice
Chairman of the
Thermoforming
Division, is shown
presenting the
Achievement Award
to Jack Hill.

Manfred Jacob Honored as
2005 Thermoformer of the Year

Thermoforming
Division Chairman
Roger Kipp and
European
Thermoforming
Division Ken Braney
shown jointly
presenting the 2005
Thermoformer of the
Year Award to Mr.
Jacob.

It’s over!! See you in 2006!!

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 12

Need help with
your technical
school or
college
expenses?

I
I
f you or someone you
know is working
towards a career in the
plastic industry, let the SPE
Thermoforming Division
help support those
education goals.

Our mission is to
facilitate the advancement
of thermoforming
technologies through
education, application,
promotion, and research.
Within this past year alone,
our organization has
awarded multiple
scholarships! Get involved
and take advantage of
available support from your
plastic industry!

Start by completing the
application forms at
www.thermoformingdivision.com
or at www.4spe.com. The
deadline for applications is
January 15th, 2006. ¦

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

13ThermoformingQUARTERLY

THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR
CRITERIA FOR 2006

E
E
very year The SPE Thermoforming
Division selects a individual
who has made a outstanding
contribution to our industry and
awards them the Thermoformer of
the Year award.

The award in the past has gone
to industry pioneers like Bo Stratton
and Sam Shapiro, who were among
the first to found thermoforming
companies and develop our industry.
We have included machine designers
and builders Gaylord Brown
and Robert Butzko and toolmaker
John Greip, individuals who helped
develop the equipment and mold
ideas we all use today. We have
also honored engineers like Lew
Blanchard and Stephen Sweig, who
developed and patented new methods
of thermoforming. Additionally,
we have featured educators like Bill
McConnell, Jim Throne and
Herman R. Osmers, who have both
spread the word and were key figures
in founding the Thermoforming
Division.

We’re looking for more individuals
like these and we’re turning to
the Thermoforming community to
find them. Requirements would include
several of the following:

.Founder or Owner of a
Thermoforming Company
.Patents Developed
.Is currently active in or recently
retired from the Thermoforming
Industry
.Is a Processor – or capable of
processing
.Someone who developed new
markets for or started a new trend
or style of Thermoforming
.Significant contributions to the
work of the Thermoforming Division
Board of Directors
.Has made a significant educational
contribution to the
Thermoforming Industry.
If you would like to bring someone
who meets some or all of these
requirements to the attention of the
Thermoforming Division, please fill
out a nomination form and a oneto
two-page biography and forward
it to:

Thermoforming Division Awards

Committee

% Productive Plastics, Inc.

Hal Gilham

103 West Park Drive

Mt. Laurel, NJ 08045

Tel: 856-778-4300

Fax: 856-234-3310

Email:
halg@productiveplastics.com

You can also find the form and see all the past
winners at www.thermoformingdivision.com in
the Thermoformer of the Year section.

You can submit nominations and bios at any time
but please keep in mind our deadline for
submissions is no later than December 1st of
each year, so nominations received after that
time will go forward to the next year.

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 14

Thermoformers of the Year …

1982

William K. McConnell, Jr.
McConnell Company

1983

E. Bowman Stratton, Jr.
Auto-Vac Corp.
1984

Gaylord Brown, Brown Machine

1985

Robert L. Butzko,

Thermtrol Corp.

1986

George Wiss,
Plastofilm Industries

1987

Dr. Herman R. Osmers

Educator & Consultant

1988

Robert Kittridge
Fabri-Kal Corporation

1989

Jack Pregont, Prent Corporation

1990

Ripley W. Gage

Gage Industries

1991

Stanley Rosen
Mold Systems Corp.

1992

Samuel Shapiro
Maryland Cup
Sweetheart Plastics

1993

John Grundy
Profile Plastics

1994

R. Lewis Blanchard
Dow Chemical
1995

James L. Blin, Triangle Plastics

1996

John Griep
Portage Casting & Mold

1997

John S. Hopple, Hopple Plastics

1998

Lyle Shuert, Shuert Industries

1999

Art Buckel, McConnell Company

2000

Dr. James Throne
Sherwood Technologies

2001

Joseph Pregont, Prent Corp.

2002

Stephen Sweig, Profile Plastics

2003

William Benjamin
Benjamin Mfg.

2004

Steve Hasselbach, CMI Plastics

2005

Manfred Jacob
Jacob Kunststofftechnik

THERMOFORMER OF
THE YEAR 2006

Presented at the September 2006 Thermoforming Conference in Nashville, Tennessee

The Awards Committee is now accepting nominations for the 2006
THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR. Please help us by identifying worthy candidates.
This prestigious honor will be awarded to a member of our industry that has made
a significant contribution to the Thermoforming Industry in a Technical, Educational,
or Management aspect of Thermoforming. Nominees will be evaluated
and voted on by the Thermoforming Board of Directors at the Winter 2006 meeting.
The deadline for submitting nominations is December 1st, 2005. Please complete
the form below and include all biographical information.

Person Nominated: _______________________________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Street Address: _____________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Telephone: _________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Biographical Information:

•
Nominee’s Experience in the Thermoforming Industry.
•
Nominee’s Education (include degrees, year granted, name and location of
university)
•
Prior corporate or academic affiliations (include company and/or institutions,
title, and approximate dates of affiliations)
•
Professional society affiliations
•
Professional honors and awards.
•
Publications and patents (please attach list).
•
Evaluation of the effect of this individual’s achievement on technology and
progress of the plastics industry. (To support nomination, attach substantial
documentation of these achievements.)
•
Other significant accomplishments in the field of plastics.
•
Professional achievements in plastics (summarize specific achievements upon
which this nomination is based on a separate sheet).
Individual Submitting Nomination: _______________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Phone: ____________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Signature: ______________________________________ Date: ____________________
(ALL NOMINATIONS MUST BE SIGNED)

Please submit all nominations to: Hal Gilham,
Productive Plastics, 103 West Park Drive
Mt. Laurel, New Jersey 08045

15
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

THERMOFORMING
DIVISION
WINTER BOARD
MEETING SCHEDULE

February 7-11, 2006
Renaissance Esmeralda
Resort & Spa

Indian Wells, California

at the base of the dramatic Santa Rosa
Mountains in the exclusive desert
community of Indian Wells

FOR RESERVATIONS: Call 760-773-4444
Request SPE Room Rate of $220.00
Group rate will be honored two days prior and
two days post based on availability.

17 miles from Palm Springs International
Airport; 86 miles from Ontario International
Airport (you will have better selection of daily
flights into Ontario and direct flights than into
Palm Springs)

Tuesday, February 7, 2006

Executive Committee Arrives
Technical Chairs Arrive

Wednesday, February 8, 2006

7:30 am – 8:00 am – Breakfast for EC &
Technical Chairs – Monaco Parlor
8:00 am – 9:00 am – Technical Chairs Meet
with Executive Committee – Monaco
8:00 am – 5:00 pm – Executive Committee
Meeting -Monaco Board Room
12:00 pm – 1:00 pm – Lunch for EC –
Monaco Board Room
4:00 pm – 5:00 pm – James Alongi, Finance
Chair meets with Executive Committee
Thursday, February 9, 2006

8:30 am – 9:00 am – Breakfast – Malta Foyer
9:00 am – 11:00 am – Materials Committee
Meeting – Monte Carlo Room
9:00 am – 11:00 am – Machinery Committee
Meeting – Gibralter Room
9:00 am – 11:00 am – Processing Committee
Meeting – Barcelona Room
12:00 pm – 1:00 pm – Lunch -Terrace Atrium
1:00 pm – 5:00 pm – All Other Committee’s

Malta A & B
Friday, February 10, 2006

7:30 am – 8:30 am – Breakfast – Malta Foyer
8:30 am – noon – Board of Director’s Meeting
– Malta A & B
Afternoon on your own
6:00 pm – 9:00 pm – Board Dinner
Arnold
Palmer’s Restaurant
Saturday, February 11, 2005

4th Annual TF Golf Tournament – The Golf
Resort at Indian Wells; Tournament
Chairman: Joe Peters, 413/592-4791; Tee
Off Times; 8:00 am

6:00 pm – 7:00 pm – Reception – Presentation
of Golf Awards – Terrace Atrium
Dinner on your own

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 16

These sponsors enable us to publish

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming

QUARTERLY

Visit the
SPE
website
at
www.4spe.org
17
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

LEAD TECHNICAL ARTICLE

Investigation of Surface Properties
of Pre-Stretching Plugs1,2

BY D. LIEBING, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, GERMANY; N. TESSIER, CMT MATERIALS, INC.,
ATTLEBORO, MA; T. BUSH, FABRI-KAL CORPORATION, KALAMAZOO, MI; AND P. EYERER,
UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, STUTTGART, GERMANY

Abstract

In plug-assisted thermoforming, the prestretching
phase is the most important step of the
forming process. Therefore, the properties of the
plug have a huge influence on the final part quality.
However, the behaviour of plug materials under
the forces over a long period of time is unknown.
In this work, plugs that have been subjected to
different loads were investigated with a focus on
their surface properties.

Introduction

In most thermoforming applications, the sheet
is pre-stretched by means of mechanical assistance
before the final molding is carried out by
differential pressure. Usually, up to 90% or more of
the total stretching of the sheet is achieved during
the pre-stretching phase. The pre-stretching plug
has great influence on the quality of thermoformed
products concerning wall thickness distribution,
opacity, gloss, and stiffness [2]. The properties of
the thermoformed product are influenced
significantly by the properties of the plug material.
Thus, creation of quench marks, wall thickness
distribution, and optical properties can be
selectively affected.

It is therefore important that a pre-stretching plug
should not change its properties measurably when
exposed to high mechanical and thermal loading
for a long period of time. In this work, the ageing

1 This paper has been edited by the Technical Editor, who is solely

responsible for any errors or omissions.
2 This paper is a continuation of Mr. Tessier’s presentation at the
session on plug materials and design given at 2004 SPE
Thermoforming Conference.

of a pre-stretching plug and the influence on its
thermoforming performance is investigated using
HYTAC®-W from CMT Materials, Inc. as an
example.

Experimental

Material

HYTAC®-W [3] is a syntactic foam which consists
of hollow glass microspheres with a diameter of 10
to 100 µm embedded in a thermoset matrix.
HYTAC®-W has very low thermal conductivity and
is recommended for the forming of PS, PVC and
PE.

A set of plugs made of HYTAC®-W (Fig. 1) were
used in a running production of cups of
polystyrene. Plugs were removed from the tool at
each time period: newly made, 1 day and 1 week
of production time (table 1).

Figure 1: Tested plug and corresponding cup.

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 18

Table 1: Tested Plugs

Plug description Removed from Running
time
Sample 1 Newly made –
Sample 2 Cavity 41 1 day
Sample 3 Cavity 31 1 week

Because the plug assists did not enter completely
into the sheet, the plugs did not contact the sheet
over their entire surfaces and were therefore loaded
mechanically only on a part of their surfaces. Color
darkening and an increase in surface roughness are
seen when comparing the unused plug (sample 1)
with the used plugs (samples 2 and 3).

Light Microscopy

A macroscope from Wild Heerbrugg, type M420 .
with 20-times magnification was used for the light
microscopic analysis. The images were taken by a
CCD-camera, type Leica DC200.

Confocal Laser-Scanning Microscopy

The confocal microscopy is an established robust
technique to investigate volume distribution and
surface topographies. A point-like light source is
incident on the object. The reflected light from the
object is focussed on a point-like detector. The signal
of the detector is only maximum when the object is
placed in the common focus plane from the pointlike
light source and the detector. If the object is
placed in front of or behind the focus plane, the
illumination on the object and the image on the
detector are diffuse and the detected intensity is
accordingly lower. Because of the point-wise mode
of operation, the whole surface has to be scanned
by the focus in all three directions in space, if a three
dimensional topography is to be recorded.

Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

The FT-IR spectroscopy method is used to
identify organic substances in solid, liquid or
gaseous state. The samples must be prepared in an
adequate manner to perform an infrared
spectroscopy. If sample preparation is not possible,
measurements can be performed using the
technique of alleviated total reflection. All

Figure 2: Confocal principle [4].

preparation methods are made difficult or
impossible with filler materials.

Gas Chromatography

Gas chromatography involves a sample being
vaporized and injected onto the head of the
chromatographic column. The sample is
transported through the column by the flow of an
inert, gaseous mobile phase. Components of the
sample mixture with a high degree of affinity for
the stationary phase are strongly retained while
components with low affinity for the stationary
phase migrate rapidly through the column. As a
consequence of the differences in mobility due to
affinities for the stationary phase, sample
components separate into discrete bands that can
be qualitatively and quantitatively analysed.

Biaxial Deformation Test

For the biaxial deformation test, a plastic sheet is
deformed by a hemispheric deformation body [1].
This test is similar to the instrumented dart test,
DIN EN ISO 6603. For this purpose the sheet is
clamped in such a way that it is not able to slip out
of the clamping device. The sheet is heated up to
processing temperature in a temperature chamber.
During deformation, the deflection of the
deformation body as well as the force on the
deformation body is measured.

Within the scope of this investigation the plugs
removed from the running production were used
instead of the hemispherical deformation body to
determine differences in the deformation behaviour
of the plugs that have been exposed to different
loadings. Subsequently, the deformed sheet was

(continued on next page)

19
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

cooled down and removed from the mould. Finally
the wall thickness distribution was measured. For
that purpose, the deformed sheet (Fig. 3) was cut
down the sheet side and a mechanical calliper was
used to measure along this line in millimeter steps.
The beginning point (measuring point 0) is located
in the middle of the bottom of the cup, the end of
the measuring line is placed at the seam of the cup
(measuring point 75).

075
Figure 3: Deformed sheet.

Results and Discussion

Investigation of Discoloration

The hollow glass microspheres as fillers in the
syntactic foam made the measurements by infrared
spectroscopy very difficult. Hence the unfilled
thermoset resin of the syntactic foam HYTAC®-W
was tempered to investigate changes in the material
due to heat treatment. Then, comparable
measurements between material in the delivery
state and tempered material were performed. The
infrared spectroscopy was performed by using the
method of alleviated total reflection (ATR).

As result of the infrared measurements, it was
seen that there was one absorption band missing
in the spectrum of the heat-treated resin. The
missing band may be caused by volatile matters.
To analyze for these substances, an extraction of
both treated and untreated resin using acetone was
carried out. From extraction measurements, it was
determined that the untreated resin contained an
amount of a material at a level three times higher
than that from the treated resin. This supports the
assumption of emission of a volatile substance.

The extracted substances were analyzed by gas
chromatography. The main component detected
was an anhydride hardener for epoxy resins.
Because the infrared spectroscopy was performed
in reflection mode and not in transmission mode,
only regions close to the surface could be
investigated. Contrary to the infrared tests, not only
the soluble substances from surface areas but also
from the core of the resin were extracted. So, one
can assume that the hardener is emitted in layers
near the surface during heat treatment.

Because the extracted resin remains dark in
colour, it is very likely that the darkening is caused
by changes in the material like oxidation or by high
molecular weight substances that are too large to
be extracted or volatile.

Investigation of Surface Roughness

A visual observation shows a clear difference in
surface roughness between the used plugs and the
new plug. The close-up view via microscope of the
plug surface verifies this observation. Fig. 4 shows
the surfaces of the different loaded plugs. It can be
seen, that the surface structure after one day loading
differs clearly from the structure of the new plug.
Longer loading (1 week) does not have a big
influence.

a)b)c)
Figure 4: Light microscopy pictures of the surfaces of a) sample 1,
b) sample 2, c) sample 3.

The surface roughness was quantified using a
Zeiss LSM 410 laser scanning microscope. The
result of these measurements is a three-dimensional
surface profile as displayed in Figure 5.

For the used plugs (samples 2 and 3), an
arithmetical mean deviation Ra was determined
between 16 and 18 microns. The new plug (sample
1) shows a value of 6 microns. This confirms on the
one hand, the light microscopic investigations and
on the other, this shows clearly the level of increase
in surface roughness.

Sample 1 was used to deform ten sheets in the
bi-axial deformation test and it already showed

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 20

Figure 5: LSM surface profile (sample 3).

after this low loading a clear increase in surface
roughness. This surface roughness is comparable
with the arithmetical mean deviation of the used
plugs. The whole surface is affected by the changes
in the surface structure, independent on the contact
area of the plug with the sheet. One can conclude
that the surface is not changed abrasively but other

effects occur.

assume that the machining of the plug induces
residual stresses or even microcracks in the surface,
which may be relieved by heat treatment and result
in flaking of the surface area.

Effects on Thermoforming Behaviour

The effect of the changes in the material and of
the increasing roughness were analyzed by the biaxial
deformation test [1]. The required force for
forming the sheet and the wall thickness
distribution of the deformed sheets as well as parts
from the running production were considered as
criteria. In Fig. 7, a slight difference in the
deformation force is shown. However the
differences shown are within the standard
deviation of the test series. The deformation
behaviour is therefore considered to be
independent of the influence of different loadings
on the plug assists.

60
50
40

0 10 20 30 40

deflection [mm]

force [N]

sample 1

Sample 1, which had been loaded in the biaxial

deformation test, was polished (Fig. 6a) and

30 sample 2
sample 3

20

exposed again to a temperature of 140°C for the
duration of one day to investigate the influence of
the temperature on the plug material. Fig. 6b shows
the surface after heat treatment. One cannot detect
a difference in the surface roughness, but again a
darkening in colour takes place.

a)
b)

Figure 6: Polished plug surfaces before (a) and after (b) the heat
treatment.

To analyze the influence of the thermal loading
in combination with the mechanical loading, the
polished plug was subjected again to the bi-axial
deformation test. Again, an increase in surface
roughness could not be detected.

A definite cause for the increase in surface
roughness cannot be determined. However, one can

10

0

Figure 7: Force-deflection curves depending on plug assists.

In Fig. 8 (see page 22), the variations of the wall
thickness distributions of the deformed sheets (Fig.
3) along the sidewalls of the cups are seen as a result
of the forming with sample 1 (unused) or with
sample 2 or 3. The wall thickness realized by
forming with used plugs is more uniform than the
wall thickness realised by forming with a newly
made plug. Thus, a minimum wall thickness can
be achieved with the use of thinner sheet, which is
very attractive to the production of packaging
articles.

Conclusion, Outlook

It was shown that surface roughness of thermoforming
plug assists made from HYTAC®-W

(continued on next page)

21
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

0,45

0,35

sample 1

sample 2

0,25

sample 3

0,15

0,05

Figure 8: Wall thickness distribution of formed sheets.

increases tremendously after only a few cycles and
a heat treatment at 140°C for a few hours. After
reaching a certain value, the roughness does not
increase further.

Neither the increase in roughness nor the
discoloration have a measurable influence on the
thermoforming behaviour of the plug assists, the
influence of plug geometry, and forming
temperature prevail. Nevertheless the deformed
sheets show a differing wall thickness distribution.
The shapes formed with the newly made plug are
disadvantageous concerning the material
distribution along the sidewalls. Further research
has to be done in the investigation of the influence
of the manufacturing process of the pre-stretching
plugs on sensitivity against thermal and mechanical
loadings. Furthermore, these insights should be
proven for long-term running plugs.

References

[1] Hegemann, B., Deformationsverhalten von
Kunststoffen beim Thermoformen experimentelle
und virtuelle Bestimmung -,
PhD-thesis, Stuttgart, (2004)
[2] Illig, A., Thermoformen in der Praxis, Carl
Hanser Verlag, Munich, (1997)
[3]
Tessier, N., Murray, T., New Developments in
Plug Materials, 14th Thermoforming
Conference (SPE), Indianapolis, (2004)
[4]
www.uni-stuttgart.de/ito
¦

35 45 55 65 75

measuring point [mm]

wall thickness [mm]

Thermoforming Division
Donates $45,000 to
National Plastics Museum

The Thermoforming Division has contributed $45,000 to the National
Plastics Museum for the purchase of a new PlastiVan and new computers.
Shown, L-R: Division Vice Chairman Walt Walker, Jack Hill, Margie Weiner
of the Plastics Museum, Division Chairman Roger Kipp, and Board Member
Steve Murrill.

Leominster, MA — The National Plastics Center &
Museum (NPCM) received a boost from the Society of
Plastics Engineers (SPE) Thermoforming Division to further
their educational outreach program in several ways.

SPE’s Thermoforming Division has donated the following
to the National Plastics Center & Museum:

•A new van for the Center’s PlastiVan program, an internationally
acclaimed education program geared for
students in grades 3 through 12, that travels throughout
the U.S teaching students, educators and the public
about the chemistry, history, processing and
environmental issues involved with plastics. With this
new van, the Center now has four vans to accomplish
their mission. SPE’s Thermoforming Division also donated
new thermoforming equipment for each of the
four PlastiVans.
•
Brand new computers for the National Plastics Center
& Museum’s Outreach Department.
•
$10,000 in matching funds for Thermoforming members.
•
A new thermoforming exhibit that will soon be a part
of the other plastics educational displays at NPCM.
“SPE’s Thermoforming Division has always supported
our outreach program from day one, but this is above and
beyond what we expected,” says Marjorie Weiner,
NPCM’s assistant director and outreach director. “Our
outreach program will greatly benefit from their generosity,
and thus the story of plastics will get heard by a wider
audience as a result.”

“We’re happy to support the NPCM as it meets our
mission of reaching the next generation so that we can
develop new young polymer scientists and plastics technicians
vital to the future of the plastics industry,” says
Roger Kipp, SPE’s Thermoforming Division’s Chair and
Vice President of McClarin Plastics Inc. “Steve Murrill of
Profile Plastics deserves much of the credit with this donation
as he has championed his idea to support the
NPCM and their PlastiVan Program.”

A formal presentation of the scope of the donation was
made at SPE’s recent Thermoforming Conference held in
Milwaukee. ¦

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 22

INDUSTRY PRACTICE

New CO2 Laser Cutting Technology

A
A
s thermoforming companies introduce new
products and processes within their facilities, they
often find that they face many new challenges in order
to meet customer requirements. The need to meet these
challenges has prompted many thermoformers to
consider implementing alternative trimming
technologies within their facilities. A growing trend
within the industry is to implement robotic laser
trimming systems as part of the manufacturing process.

In the past, laser cutting solutions were considered
to be technology that was costly to implement and
difficult to maintain. Technical advancements within
the past few years have addressed many of these issues
and as a result, laser cutting technology has become
practical for processing a variety of parts.
Thermoformed automotive components and decorative
trim products continue to be prime applications for
robotic laser trimming. Automotive parts such as body
side moldings, console bezels, instrument panel trim
components, and fascia assemblies are just some of the
thermoformed products that are being trimmed with
laser. In addition, aftermarket and dealer installed
components are also being trimmed with the laser
process. Components formed from materials such as
ABS, Polypropylene, and HDPE are just a few examples
of parts that are commonly processed with the CO2 laser
cutting technology.

The laser process allows these parts to be trimmed in
a single step, eliminating the need for manual finishing
of the trimmed edge, as is the case for many parts when
they are processed with die trim operations. This is due
to the laser “searing” the edge of the part during the
cutting process, leaving a much smoother, clean, and
consistent trim line as compared to die cut parts.
Eliminating the trim die process also reduces the
operating costs associated with producing the part, as
die maintenance is no longer required.

The laser system allows product design changes to
be implemented within a matter of minutes by simply
re-programming the robot, allowing the thermoformer
to quickly respond to customer demands to implement
“on-the-fly” product changes. A typical trim die must
be sent back to the tool maker for re-work, which can
often take several weeks and can be cost prohibitive.
Multiple versions of the same part can also be processed
with the robot by selecting a different program to cut
out any optional features or to cut alternate trim lines.

These changes can be made by an operator by simply
selecting the options on a graphical user interface
screen.

Change over from one part style to another is also
easily accommodated on the laser system. Quick change
tooling methods can be included in the design of the
work cell, allowing one fixture to be removed and
replaced with another within a matter of minutes by a
single set-up person. A fixture identification system can
also allow the system to recognize the new part style as
the fixture is located on the work cell, allowing the
correct program to be loaded automatically by the robot
controller. Changes to process parameters such as travel
speeds and laser power are automatically set as well,
resulting in consistent part quality from one production
run to the next. This functionality serves as a built in
error-proofing feature, reducing the potential for an
incorrect set-up during machine change over. A typical
robotic laser trimming solution includes a sealed CO2
laser head with a mirrored beam delivery package that
directs the laser beam from the power source to the
focusing head, Figure 1.

This laser package is then integrated to a five (5) or
six (6) axis articulating robot arm. The integrated design
of the laser package allows the robot to achieve a wide
range of motion, which in turn allows larger and more
complex parts to be processed. Newer laser robots
feature a laser that is fully integrated as part of the robot
arm, eliminating the need route utilities such as cooling
lines, RF power and DC power externally. This

(continued on next page)

23
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

integrated design provides a very compact and reliable
laser beam delivery assembly as well. Current designs
allow sealed lasers with power ranges of up to 600 watts
to be implemented as an integral part of the robot arm.

With the integrated laser package, the upper arm of
the robot is removed and replaced with a specially
designed housing that contains the CO2 laser head and
RF power supply. New robot wrist axes are
implemented, and they are constructed to be a part of
the laser beam delivery package. This construction
minimizes the number of mirrors required to deliver
the CO2 cutting beam to the focusing lens. In addition,
this design allows the robot wrist axes to have infinite
rotation, allowing more complex cut paths to be
processed. This motion range also reduces the need to
stop the robot in the middle of the cut in order to reorient
the robot wrist, allowing better cycle times to be
achieved. The result is a beam delivery system that
delivers a more defined beam path without the
requirement for extensive maintenance. Periodic
cleaning of the mirrors and the lens is the only normal
maintenance requirement. The laser head itself requires
no maintenance for 15,000 to 20,000 hours of operation,
after which the laser must be re-charged.

For the system, a vacuum fixture is typically used to
hold the part in a repeatable manner while the trimming
process is being completed. The part holding fixture is
mounted either to a fixed table or to a turntable to
present the part to the laser robot. The turntable design
allows two (2) parts or sets of parts to be processed
simultaneously on the work cell. While parts are being
cut on the inner side of the turntable, the operator can
unload and reload parts on the opposing side. A typical
turntable cycle of three (3) seconds or less means that
robot idle time is minimized, as the only time that the
robot is not trimming parts is during the turntable
index. This arrangement provides the benefit of high
system throughput, maximum robot utilization and
better flexibility, by allowing multiple fixture styles to
be processed simultaneously on the work cell.

The laser robot is placed within a fully enclosed work
cell, which provides a very safe working environment
around the system, Figure 2.

This approach isolates the operator from interacting
with the laser process during the cutting cycle, as the
barrier that is built into the turntable prevents physical
and visual access to the process while the laser is active.
In addition, hazardous fumes that are generated during
the trimming process are collected at the point of cutting
and remain contained within the enclosure. These
fumes are then evacuated from the system and the air
is cleaned through the use of a multi-stage air filtration
unit.

Process cutting speeds continue to increase as the
technology evolves and more powerful lasers become
available. As the travel speeds increase, the cycle time
is reduced, in many cases allowing the cutting time to
match up with the forming cycle. The increase in laser
power has also resulted in the ability to process thicker
materials, as well as multi-layer constructions. The
increase of cutting power, along with advancements in
robot path performance have made it viable to process
parts that were not a possibility just a few years ago.

Robotic laser trimming technology continues to
advance at a rapid rate. As we continue to see dramatic
changes in this technology, it is evident that laser cutting
will gain popularity as a trimming option for
thermoformed parts. For those who haven’t taken a
hard look at this technology recently, it just might be
the right time to take a second look at this flexible
trimming option.

Robotic Production Technology is a turnkey robotic
systems solutions provider. Industries served include
aerospace, appliance, automotive, composites,
construction, consumer goods, marine and plastics
industries. The company specializes in high path
accurate trimming applications such as deflashing, laser
cutting and scoring, router and water jet cutting. RPT
also has process expertise in material dispensing,
assembly, joining, material handling and welding.
Capabilities include project management, engineering,
simulation services, fabricating and machining, system
integration and certification, software, training, service
and support. Since 1985, RPT has been a leading
manufacturer of flexible manufacturing systems
utilizing multi-axis robots, with an installed base of
more than 2,000 robots.

More information on the laser cutting process can
be obtained by contacting Doug Cicchini, Robotic
Production Technology at 248.829.2800,
solutions@rpt.net or www.rpt.net. ¦

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 24

INDUSTRY PRACTICE

History of Thermoforming – Part II1

BY STANLEY R. ROSEN, PLASTIMACH CORPORATION, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA

Ed. Note I: The philosopher Santayana said “Those who cannot
remember the past are destined to repeat it.” Stan Rosen is
undertaking a prodigious project – identifying the pioneers who
laid the foundations of the industry we know so well. Although
shaping of sheet extends back to pre-history – oil-heated and shaped
tortoise shell and steam-heated and shaped wood, Stan begins the
journey in the 1930s. We hope you enjoy the trip!

Thermoforming Pioneers 1930-1950

Figure 7.

Figure 7. G. W. Borkland of Borkland Lab, Marion,
Indiana filed a patent on 10-2-1941 for forming a plastic
lighting diffuser. A plastic sheet is held in a clamp frame
above a box to which is fastened a soft thick sponge rubber
membrane. The male cavity is mounted on an upper
moving platen. A box assembly contains a sheet that has
been heated to forming temperature and the cavity forces
the sheet into the sponge rubber where it cools on the
mold. Sponge rubber plays the part that vacuum or
pressure forming does in present-day thermoforming.

All of these pioneers struggled with methods of sheet
heating, clamping the sheet, vacuum and pressure forming
techniques and the evolution of various ways of dealing
with these problems. Helwig used oven preheating and
hot oil. Leary tried zoned radiant heat bulbs. Braund found
that convection (heated air) suited his project and Wiley
experimented with steam. Borkland’s early experiments
forming with sponge rubber was soon abandoned for
vacuum forming.

Figure 8. C. B. Strauch, assigned to the Plax Corp.,
Hartford, Connecticut, a patent filed 11-22-1938. This

1 Part I is found in Thermoforming Quarterly 3Q05.

Figure 8.

magnificent all-mechanical machine was the first roll fed
inline thermoformer in which a plastic web entered the
machine and trimmed formed parts exited. The plastic
web was indexed from heating, forming and various
auxiliary operations through a trimming die by a chain
belt. Unfortunately its high productivity was its curse since
in 1938 there was not sufficient high volume business to
feed the machine’s appetite. It successfully produced ice
cube trays, Christmas ornaments and cigarette mouth tips.

Louis H. Phohl in 1938 in New York City, used matched
male and female wooden molds to form clear cellulose
acetate domes for counter displays. He heated the plastic
on a gas hot plate and transported the sheet to the molds
mounted in a kick press where they formed. His firm,
Plaxall Corp., Long Island City, New York, continues today
as a high-quality thermoformer and is a leader in its field.
His son, Jim Phohl, describes a conference in which Louis
and Jim Phohl met with Bill Simms, Editor of Modern
Packaging Magazine. One topic they discussed was that
vacuum and pressure forming is an inclusive process, so
they created the term thermoforming. Thereafter Modern
Packaging employed the word “thermoforming” in their
articles. It can be assumed that many others will also now
claim the authorship of this term.

Figure 9. G. W. Borkland of Marion, Indiana filed a
patent on 7-8-1947 for a vacuum forming machine. The
equipment utilizes individual loose single picture frames

(3) which have needles (18) protruding upwards to impale
the plastic’s sheet. An operator places the plastic’s sheet
(continued on next page)

25
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

Figure 9.

on the frame (3) and manually closes a pivoted platen (21)
to force the sheet firmly on the needles. The sheet and
frame are carried to the vacuum former where the plastic
is heated over a lower oven (9) and transferred to the mold

(7) which is mounted vertically and then vacuum formed.
Borkland has many patents issued in the 1940s that
pertain to the thermoforming field and advertised his
processes at shows and in Modern Plastics Magazine to
licensees. At the 1950 National Plastics Exhibition (NPE)
in Chicago, two booths showcased thermoformed parts.
Both Borkland Laboratories and Regal Plastics of Kansas
City displayed their formed parts. Borkland exhibited thin
walled vacuum formed packaging and Regal displayed a
heavy gauge motion picture machine case formed using
matching wood male and female cavities. Commercial
thermoforming machines were not available to the trade
until early 1952 when Industrial Radiant Heat Corp.
apparently was the first to display a machine at the NPE
in Philadelphia, Pa. in March 1952. Modern Plastics
Magazine, May 1952, reviewed the exhibition and wrote
the following glowing report.

“Rigid vinyl was also involved in the Industrial
Radiant Heat Corp. exhibit which perhaps
attracted more continuous attention than any
other booth in the show. The product on exhibit
was the company’s machine for vacuum
forming thermoplastic sheet. Most of the sheets
being vacuum formed were rigid vinyl,
although the suitability of the machine for
forming polystyrene, styrene copolymer,
acetate, and even thin acrylic sheets was also
demonstrated. The machine exhibited was
designed for manual operation and employed
an infra-red super-heater to soften the
thermoplastic sheet prior to forming.

“The operation of the vacuum forming machine
and the attention it attracted effectively
dramatized the possibilities of this long

neglected process. The significance of the
process as a possible alternative to injection
molding for the production of large but
essentially simple pieces was the subject of
much comment. Some observers noted that the
piece was almost as large as the inner door of a
refrigerator. Others spoke of the possibility of
extruding a thermoplastic sheet and vacuum
forming it while still warm, as fast as it is
extruded, thus creating a production set-up
with vast possibilities for high speed output of
numerous end products.”

E. Bowman Stratton (Bow), chief of the Relief Map
Division, Army Map Service, in 1947 successfully started
production of relief maps using the equipment shown in
Figure 10. His group built on the work of the Braund
patent, Figure 5, and produced a machine with all the
elements of a modern vacuum former. In January, 1952,
Bow Stratton joined Industrial Radiant Heat Corp. of New
Jersey as sales manager, and was present at the NPE March
1952 show where the machine drew such universal
interest, as quoted above.
Figure 10.

It may be interesting to review Figure 10 and the above
mentioned quotation. Both describe the oven as “super
heater”. Steve Hasselbach, of CMI Plastics, Cranbury, New
Jersey, related an incident which occurred in the 1950s.
His father owned an ancient model thermoformer oven
made of glass cloth interwoven with nichrome (toaster)
wire which required repair. He went for the repair to Zack
Radiant Heat Corp. in New Jersey which he believed was
the successor company to Industrial Radiant Heat Corp.
Both corporations may have merged, closed or changed
their names and are not available for comment. I believe
the super heater was of the design described above.

Modern Plastics Magazine, February 1953, reported the
following news item:

“Auto-Vac Co., 2120 Post Rd., Fairfield, Conn, is a
new company producing vacuum forming machines.
The new machines include a wide range of sizes and
new design features for rapid, economical
production. A small-pilot-plant machine sells for
about $1500; a single-table operation machine is

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 26

priced around $5000; and a twotable
machine at $10,000. The
company is also setting up a
product development and
testing department to further
the growth of the vacuum
forming process. Several
machines have already been
installed with deliveries
running from four to eight
weeks after receipt of order.

“The company has been
organized by E. Bowman
Stratton, who helped develop
the Army Map Service vacuum
process for making contour
maps from plastic sheet, and R.

L. Butzko, formerly of Noma
Electric Co.”
Bow Stratton marketed this line of
vacuum formers by means of
magazine articles, seminars, shows
and technical society papers. By the
end of 1953, many entrepreneurs
became very interested in this
process. Bob Butzko was an
experienced engineer who quickly
redesigned the early models of
equipment to stand up to industrial
conditions. The oven and its controls
were upgraded to modern
requirements as well as the clamp
frame, pneumatics and mechanical
features. Very rapidly a half dozen
thermoforming machine companies
were competing within a year of
Auto Vac’s founding.

The golden age of thermoforming,
1950-1960, finally had the tools to
bloom.

References

J. H. DuBois, Plastics History USA,
Cahners Publishing Co., Inc.,
1972.
J. J. Braund, U.S. Patent 2,066,555,
filed 2-17-1936.
E. L. Helwig, U.S. Patent 2,142,445,
filed 11-27-1936.
C. B. Strauch, U.S. Patent 2,229,613,
filed 11-22-1938.
R. E. Leary, U.S. Patent 2,377,946,
filed 12-27-1940.
G. W. Borkland, U.S. Patent
2,347,806, filed 10-2-1941.
E. L. Helwig, U.S. Patent 2,365,637,
filed 8-28-1942.
F. E. Wiley, U.S. Patent 2,468,697,
filed 6-1-1944.
J. J. Braund, U.S. Patent 2,493,439,
filed 9-24-1946.
G. W. Borkland, U.S. Patent
2,559,705, filed 7-8-1947.
Phone conversation with Jim Phohl,
Plaxall Corp., Long Island City,
NY, Dec 2004.

Phone conversation with Steve
Hasselbach, CMI Plastics Corp.,
Cranbury, NJ, Dec 2004.

SPI (NPE now), archives from
Hagley Museum and Library,
Wilmington DE, for exhibitors
1950, 1952.

Modern Plastics and Modern
Plastics Magazine, issues 19501953.

Army Map Service, Relief Map
Division, Corps. of Engineers,
Washington DC.

Ed. Note II: Each year since 1982, the
SPE Thermoforming Division has
honored a leader in the thermoforming
field. Bow Stratton was the 1983
Thermoformer of the Year. Bob Butzko
was the 1985 Thermoformer of the
Year. And Stan Rosen, the author of
this article was the 1991 Thermoformer
of the Year. Stan can be reached at
thermoipp@earthlink.net. ¦

27ThermoformingQUARTERLY

INDUSTRY PRACTICE

Design of Experiments – An Overview1

BY DAVID SCHOFF2, CREATIVE FORMING, INC., RIPON, WISCONSIN

D
D
esign of Experiments is already an important tool
in your toolbox if you are a Six Sigma Black Belt
or moving your company into a lean manufacturing
environment. If you are not familiar with this tool, it
can easily be learned and put to work with the help
from today’s software. It can be used to efficiently learn
specific information about your process. This article will
give you a brief overview (or review) of what Design
of Experiments is, how it works, and what to consider
when designing experiments of your own.

What is Design of Experiments?

What it is not is the “next big thing.” In fact, it has
been around for over seventy years. Abbreviated DOE,
it is short for Statistical Design of Experiments. What it
is is a structured data-gathering tool – literally
“designing” experiments to learn specific information
about your process.

Listening Versus a Conversation

A useful analogy originated by Box and Hunter was
presented to this author by Professor Conrad Fung, a
statistical consultant and the statistics professor for
University of Wisconsin’s Master of Engineering in
Professional Practice Program (http://
mepp.engr.wisc.edu/). Consider the differences
between “listening” to a process and having a
“conversation” with that process. Listening is
observational and passive. The data that you gather will
only reveal what the process cares to tell you. It is like
eavesdropping on your process and analysis is
accomplished with basic statistics, such as the average
and standard deviation. In contrast to listening, having
a conversation with your process is experimental and
active. You disturb your process to see how it responds.
It is like interviewing your process, and it uses statistics
that are more involved. This is Design of Experiments
or DOE.

1 This article has had minor editing. Any errors or misrepresentations
of the original article are the sole responsibility of the Technical
Editor.

2 David Schoff received the 2002 Griep Memorial Scholarship while
a graduate student at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Unique Benefits

DOE can be used to gather data more efficiently and
effectively, with fewer people and less machine time,
than trial and error methods. By using DOE, you
identify which factors contribute the main effects of the
process, you reveal interactions between factors, and
you minimize the impact of unknown variation. Most
importantly, you avoid problems that are common with
one-factor-at-a-time forms of data gathering. Figure 1
shows each factor being adjusted one at a time. To see
the effect of just one factor may require many trials.
The temptation to adjust factors, one after another, is
great and you may find yourself chasing your tail,
generating data that may only provide limited

information about your process.
Figure 1. Adjusting factors A, B, and C, one factor at a time.

Another unique benefit of DOE is efficient process
characterization and optimization. A possible outcome
from DOE may be the development of a formula that
shows how process factors affect your process. This may
provide information on how to adjust those factors to
optimize the process for the part feature you are trying
to improve.

How Does DOE Work?

In practical terms, you choose various factors and
high and low levels of these factors. You then conduct
a defined number of test runs at defined combinations
of those factors and levels. By following this design,
statistics can provide very useful information about
your process.

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 28

Designs, Factors and Levels

With DOE, you carefully plan your tests such that
you maximize the information you learn about your
process. It is common that a series of DOEs are
completed in search of answers to a specific question.
Different types of designs are useful in different
situations. Screening designs permit you to screen out
factors that have little or no effect on the problem you
are analyzing. This helps you narrow your list of
potential factors. Full designs or full factorial designs
look at every combination of chosen factors at high and
low levels. More commonly, partial designs or fractional
factorial designs are used because they carefully limit
the number of individual runs required to gather the
data while still allowing the statistics to work properly.
The very acceptable trade-off in exchange for more
economical experiments is somewhat less information
about higher-level interactions between factors and
limited estimates of statistical error.

Figure 2. Orthogonal array of factors A, B, and C at all
combinations of high (+) and low (-) levels of eight runs.

Orthogonal Arrays

To get a little more technical in terms of the workings
of DOE, consider the orthogonal array in Figure 2. Each
corner represents a combination of the three chosen
factors at high and low levels, a 2 x 3 array. These eight
combinations define all possible runs in this experiment.
In other words, it is a full-factorial. Each factor at each
level is represented twice. Now eliminate runs 1, 4, 6,
and 7. The remaining runs define a half fraction of a
factorial experiment or a half-factorial. Note that each
level of each factor is still represented, allowing the
statistics to function and to provide estimates of every
main effect. Again, information about interactions is
given up in exchange for economy of the experiment.
Again, this is often a necessary trade-off.

Statistics and Software

Today’s software easily facilitates the data entry,
statistical calculations, and reporting functions needed
for DOE. It also assists you in designing your

experiments by setting the limits required to achieve
statistical correctness. Many of the full statistical
packages such as Minitab, Statistica and JMP all have
DOE modules. Understanding the general way that
each software package performs the DOE statistics is
good. But more importantly, training in the proper use
of the software is worth the time. And the training is
readily available.

Designing Experiments

A number of items must be considered when
designing experiments:

• Measurements
• Factors
• Factor levels
• Constants
• Number of runs
• Randomize runs
• Cost
Measurements

What you need to measure is directly related to the
problem you are investigating. Wall thickness, flange
flatness and opening force are examples. More
importantly, how the values are to be measured must
be clearly defined so that the data are taken in a
consistent manner.

Factors

Choosing the factors to consider may be obvious. The
more you understand your process, the easier your
choice will be. This is also why a series of DOEs are
common, each building on the knowledge gained from
earlier DOEs. In thermoforming, factors such as
temperature, plugs (shape, depth, materials, radii), or
platen speeds may be items you might consider.

If the choice of factors is not obvious, it is
recommended that a screening design DOE be run first.
This allows you to efficiently eliminate many factors
that are insignificant to the part feature you are
examining. The next DOE(s) can then focus on the
factors that appear to have the greatest effects.

Factor Levels

What high and low levels do you choose? This
decision can be very difficult when designing your
experiment. If the range is too small, the effect of the
factor may be hidden within the variation in the data.
If the range is too wide, the parts may not be
measurable. Consider the effect of temperature. If it is
too low, the parts may not be fully formed. If it is too
high, they may be deformed. Either way, the part
performance may not be measurable. On the other
hand, if the temperature range is too small, the
temperature effect on the parts may be undetectable.

(continued on next page)

29
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

The best advice from Professor Fung is to be bold
with your choice of levels. Again, knowing your process
is helpful. Tests ahead of time to find the limits of the
factors are worthwhile. You always want as wide a
range as practical for your process and your part
measurement. Realize that you may produce
unacceptable parts during your DOE as you test the
limits of your process. But loss of these parts is an
investment in gaining process knowledge about these
limits.

Constants

Keeping everything else constant while you adjust
only the chosen factors can be one of the most
challenging aspects of doing DOEs. Learning about
your process will help you determine if and how to keep
other factors constant while adjusting the chosen ones.

Number of Runs

The number of runs is prescribed by the design you
are using. For example, a 3-factor full-factorial design
requires eight runs. A 5-factor half-factorial design
requires 16 runs. Without the prescribed number of
runs, statistics cannot do what it is supposed to do. If
you are able to completely repeat a set of runs, the
statistics will establish levels of statistical error in
addition to providing information about factor effects
and about interaction between factors and process
characterization. Depending on the design, the number
of runs may be few or many. The design you choose
and its prescribed number of runs may be a practical
decision based on the cost and time invested in the DOE.
If these factors seem prohibitive, consider fractional or
screening designs with fewer runs. These may provide
sufficient information to answer the process questions.

Randomized Run Order

Process variability is inherent. You cannot eliminate
it but you can moderate its effects. Randomizing the
order of your experimental runs can help you in three
ways. First, randomizing limits the effects of lurking
variables that you cannot see or do not expect. Second,
randomizing eliminates designer or operator bias
during the run. And third, randomizing runs permits
valid estimates of statistical error, allowing you to
estimate the reliability of your results.

With that said, there are practical challenges in
performing runs in the prescribed random order. There
is the difficulty of changing plugs or mold inserts, if
these are important factors. Or there is the difficulty of
stabilizing your process between runs. Sometimes it
may be necessary to compromise and make runs in a
more convenient manner.

Costs

Finally, as a DOE designer, the costs to run a DOE
may be your biggest hurdle in order to examine the
problem you are experiencing. It will cost the company
money to perform DOEs. The costs include machine
time, labor, and the material to produce unacceptable
product during the time that the equipment could be
making salable product. It is likely that one DOE will
not answer your questions and that you will need to
run a series of DOEs, thus adding to the cost.
Management, as they should, will look very closely at
these costs and weight the potential benefits against
them. If your problem is particularly difficult, and if
you can reduce scrap losses by a few percent, running
the DOE study could put money in the bank.

Output

Each software package offers a unique format but all
will present results in a variety of easy-to-read graphs
and tables. You will quickly see which factors contribute
to the main effects and what the relative effects between
factors are. If interactions exist between factors,
interaction graphs will show this as well, as seen in
Figure 3.

Figure 3. Sample Minitab Pareto main effects and interaction
graphs

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 30

out which factors have the greatest effect on the part

Conclusion

feature you are examining. You will be able to determine

DOE is an important tool in your toolbox. Careful

if any interactions of factors are present. And finally,

planning and use of today’s software to harness the

you will be able to optimize those factors to produce

power of statistics will provide you with specific

the best part possible, with the least scrap. ¦

knowledge about your process. You will be able to sort

UNIVERSITY NEWS

UW-P Plastics Processing Technology Center Receives Gift
of Thermoforming Machine From MAAC and Division

T
T
he University of Wisconsin-Platteville Plastics
Processing Technology Center recently
received a gift of a new state-of-the-art
thermoformer from MAAC Machine in Chicago,
Illinois and the Thermoforming Division of the
Society of Plastics Engineers. Additional funding
for tooling and materials will come from the
thermoforming industry, including an ongoing
commitment from Plastic Ingenuity, Inc., Cross
Plains, Wisconsin. The value of the equipment will
exceed $50,000.

The gift comes as UW-Platteville is increasingly
being recognized as a major influence in the world
of Wisconsin plastics processing. According to Dr.
Majid Tabrizi, Professor of Industrial Studies and
Director of the UWP Center for Plastics Processing
in the College of Business, Industry, Life Science
and Agriculture, Wisconsin is rated between eighth
and 12th in plastics manufacturing in the nation. It
is the fourth largest industry in the state, with over
700 plastics and plastics-related companies,
employing over 52,000 people. Total sales exceed
$3,000 million annually. Over a dozen companies
rank within the top 100 companies nationwide, and
that figure doubles if Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota
are included.

Significantly, almost 30 percent of jobs in the
industries are in companies within 250 miles of
Platteville, and one of the few universities in the
region training students for this industry.

Gene Schoohs, Engineer Manager for Plastic
Ingenuity, Inc., explained why his and other
companies continue to support UW-Platteville’s
plastics technology program. “We’re living in a

global society which is becoming more and more
competitive. We have to be able to have highly
qualified people and the UW-P plastics program is
a strong contributing factor in being able to do that.
We find [their] graduates have the strong technical
background we need to come in and help us build
on our knowledge and experience,” Schoohs said.

The Center’s laboratory is equipped with over
$1 million worth of plastics equipment, making it
one of the best equipped in the upper Midwest.
Those assets, along with the expertise of the UWP
faculty, make the Center a resource that provides a
variety of technical services, including periodic
training programs for the business community. In
fact, this summer, the Center offered six workshops
related to thermoforming through the continuing
education department.

Anyone interested in learning more about the
UW-P Plastics Processing Technology program may
go to www.uwplatt.edu/cfppt or call Tabrizi to
request an informational CD at 608-342-1115. ¦

Dr. Tabrizi and UW-Platteville Thermoformer.

31
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

The Ubiquitous1 Draw Ratio

BY JIM THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FL

P
P
robably the first thing a novice
hears in thermoforming after
he/she learns to spell “thermoforming,”
is the phrase, “Draw
Ratio.” So, this lesson focuses on
the concept of draw ratio.

Is There More Than One
Definition?

Unfortunately, yes. There are at
least three definitions. Let’s define
the common ones.

Areal Draw Ratio, often given the
symbol RA, is the ratio of the area
of the part being formed to the
area of the sheet needed to make
the part. Although I promised not
to use equations in our TF 101
lessons, some simple ones here
won’t hurt all that much:

R = Area/Area

APartSheet

A simple example, please?
Consider a cylinder one unit in
diameter by one unit high. The
area of the cylinder and its base is
(+/4) = 5/4. The area of the
sheet used to form the cylinder is

/4. Therefore the areal draw ratio,
RA, is 5. As an interesting aside, the
reciprocal of the areal draw ratio
is the average reduced thickness of
the formed part, being 1 /5 = 0.20.
In other words, the original sheet
thickness has been reduced by
80%, on the average.
Linear Draw Ratio, often given the
symbol RL, is the ratio of the length
of a line scribed on the part surface
to the original length of the line.
Again, in equation form:

1 Ubiquitous: Being present everywhere at

once.
2 Axisymmetric: Having symmetry around
an axis.

THERMOFORMING
101
R = Line/Line

LPartSheet

For the same example, the length
of the line on the cylinder is
(1+1+1) = 3. The original length of
the line is 1. Therefore, the linear
draw ratio, RL, is 3. The linear draw
ratio is akin to the way in which the
plastic is stretched in a tensile test
machine,

Height-to-Diameter Ratio, often
written as H:D, is the height of the
cylinder (1), to the diameter of the
cylinder (1). Or H:D = 1. H:D is
used primarily for axisymmetric2
parts such as cones or cylinders,
such as drink cups.

In summary, for the cylinder
described above, RA=5, RL = 3, and

H:D = 1. So you see, there is no
agreement between these
definitions.
Are Draw Ratios of Use?
Importance?

So, which one do we use?
Depends. First, we need to
determine whether draw ratio is a
useful concept.

Let’s focus on areal draw ratio to
determine its utility. As we have
already learned, the reciprocal of
RA is the average reduced
thickness. But where is this
reduced thickness? Somewhere
down the side of the formed part.
In fact, there is probably a line
around the periphery of the part

where the part thickness is exactly
the average reduced thickness. So,
what does this tell us about the
uniformity of the part wall
thickness? Or the degree of
difficulty in forming the part? Or
whether webs are formed
somewhere in the part? Or what
the plug needs to look like? Or …?
Really, nothing.

Having said that, areal draw
ratio is perhaps the easiest concept
to understand. Linear draw ratio,
as noted, is often compared with
extension limits determined from
tensile testing equipment. And

H:D is often used in Europe to
describe formability of plastics for
cup applications.
At best, draw ratios represent
bragging rights rather than
information about the degree of
difficulty in forming the parts.
Many formers will tell you that
parts that have very small draw
ratios are much more difficult to
form reliably than parts with large
draw ratios. And parts with many
compartments are far more
difficult to form than parts with
single compartments, even when
the draw ratios of the two types are
identical.

[See? Those equations didn’t hurt
at all, now, did they?] ¦

Keywords:Areal draw ratio, linear
draw ratio, H:D

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 32

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2005!!
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Thermoforming
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J. L. White and D. D. Choi,
Polyolefins: Processing,
Structure Development and
Properties, Hanser Gardner
Publications, Cincinnati, OH,
2005, 271+xiv pages, $130.
The University of Akron
Polymer Engineering
Department has one of the
premier polymer research
programs in the US. Professor
White is one of the founders of
the program and his research
efforts in polymer characterization,
rheological characterization,
and twin-screw
extrusion are well-known
throughout the world. In his
latest work, he has teamed with
Dr. Choi to review the past and
current polyolefin technology.
Dr. White’s methodical,
academic, almost pedantic style
is reflected in an extensive review
of the history of polyolefin resin
production and 929 references, a
prodigious number for such a
slim volume. The reader may be
surprised to find rather extensive
references to polystyrene in a
polyolefin-only book. But the
authors point out that certain
forms of polystyrene are
crystalline and that the
commodity amorphous
polystyrene represents a basis for
the understanding of polymers
prior to crystallization.
The volume consists of eleven
chapters – Origins of Polyolefins

(22 pages), Characterization
Methods (26), Crystallography of
Polyolefins (26), Single Crystals:
Structural Hierarchy and
Morphology (16), Spherulites and
Quiescent Crystallization (16),
Polyolefin Copolymers and
Blends (14), Polymer Melt
Processing, Rheological
Properties, and Orientation in
the Flowing Polymer Melts (24),
Melt Spinning (40), Film
Processing and Profile Extrusion
(28), Molding (28), and
Mechanical Properties of
Polyolefins (9).

The reader must keep in mind
that this is not an encyclopedic
compendium or even a textbook.
In fact, it is a modest volume that
attempts to cover a vast subject.
Tomes have been written on
small segments of the subject,
some of which have been
reviewed in this column. The
authors state in the preface that
the book is unique in that it treats
the characterization and
crystallography and the
development of polymer
structure during fabrication. So,
have the authors met their stated
goal?

To a very large extent, yes.
Although the book is highly
technical, there is a good balance
between characterization of
molecular structure and the
interaction between polymer
structure development and
processing. Process engineers
and R&D technologists need to
know the interaction between
polymer morphology and
polymer performance in, say,

sheet extrusion and melt phase
thermoforming. This is
particularly true for slowly
crystallizing polymers such as
polypropylene. There is a nice
section on structure
development in biaxial films, for
example. The chapter on
molding is terse and not terribly
strong, but this is understandable
considering the backgrounds of
the authors. The discussion on
mechanical properties is very
brief and deals primarily with
fibers and films. As a result, it is
of marginal interest to
thermoforming product
designers.

The book seems quite free
from typos. It is not fault-free,
however. As an example, the
graphics do not seem very
uniform. For example, three
different lettering styles are used
on consecutive figures (9.1, 9.2
and 9.3). And I find two niggling
problems with the writing style,
in general. It seems to me that the

authors leap back and forth from
very simple concepts (molecular
weight distribution, filament
force balance) to very complex
concepts (x-ray defraction
crystallography, birefringence)
without adequate transitional
paragraphs. And I find a problem
with the fluidity of the subject
matter. While I appreciate that
the authors can trace each and
every concept back to its origin,
the presence of these historical
interludes in the midst of each
and every topical discussion
becomes disconcerting and
frankly downright annoying after
a while.

Having said that, I like the
book. While not every one will
want to own it, I think it deserves
a place in your plastics R&D
bookshelf. I give it four books out
of five.

~ Jim Throne

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35
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Council Report …
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

BY STEVE HASSELBACH, COUNCILOR

T
T
his summary is intended to help
you review the highlights of the
Council Meeting in Milwaukee on Saturday,
September 24th, 2005.

The meeting was called to order by
SPE President Len Czuba. President
Czuba directed Council’s attention to
a newly created Hurricane Relief Blog
on the SPE website, which was created
to help SPE members who are victims
of this tragedy – http://www.4spe.org/
katrinablog.

Executive Director Susan Oderwald
reported on recent organizational
changes at Headquarters. Maria
Russo joined the staff as the new Divisions
Leadership Liaison, replacing
Debra Vogel (Ravetto); Elizabeth
Mitchell is the new e-Learning Project
Leader, replacing Tara Munsen; and
Sara Vokes, Office Receptionist/HR
Assistant, is the newest SPE staff
member.

Vice President Lance Neward gave
an informative report on Parliamentary
Procedure in which he explained
the role of a proxy as it relates to Council
attendance and the proxy’s responsibilities.

Budget

The major Council action was the
approval of the 2006 calendar-year
budget. A full write-up on the budget
was distributed to Councilors and to
all Section and Division Board members
in August. The budget that was
approved calls for gross income of
$5,646,000, direct expenses of
$3,513,000, staff and overhead expenses
of $2,044,000, and a net income
of $79,000.00. Council approved
the budget by a clear majority vote

unchanged from the original presentation.
A full area-by-area presentation
of this budget is available to Section
and Division Board members at:
http://www.4spe.org/communities/
leadership/0509/materials.php.

Constitution and Bylaws

The following motion was approved:

Because Council and the Executive
Committee requested the Constitution
and Bylaws Committee to
prepare a new draft of the Society’s
Bylaws that combines all of the
statutes of the Society’s existing
Constitution and Bylaws into a
new document that is more clearly
organized and more reflective of
the current Council practice, and
that document is now ready for
consideration, I move that Council
approve the amendment of the

existing Constitution of the Soci

ety by dissolving it.

As a result of the passage of this
motion, a SPECIAL SPE BUSINESS
MEETING WILL BE HELD ON SAT-
URDAY, JANUARY 21st, 2006, AT

10:30 A.M. AT THE ALBUQUERQUE
MARRIOTT HOTEL IN CONJUNC-
TION WITH THE NEXT COUNCIL
MEETING IN ALBUQUERQUE, NEW
MEXICO.
PLEASE BE SURE TO BE IN AT-
TENDANCE. This special meeting is
being called in order to vote on the
dissolution of the SPE Constitution.
A positive vote will allow us to send
this motion out to the entire SPE
membership for an all-member vote,
as required by the Constitution. As 50
voting members must be in attendance
to hold this special meeting, a
majority Council participation is
necessary!

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Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 36

At the Council Meeting in Albuquerque,
you will hear a second reading
of, and vote on, the adoption of
the new SPE Bylaws, which will replace
the existing Constitution and
Bylaws as soon as the Constitution is
dissolved.

Section Name Change

Council approved the name change
of the Newark Section to the New Jersey
Section.

Student Chapter

Council voted to charter a Student
Chapter at Texas Technical University.

Committee Meetings

Thirteen committees met prior to
the Council meetings.

The following Committee/Officer
Reports were given at the Council
meeting:

a) Sections – A. Arduini

b) Divisions – J. Griffing

c) International – J. Ratzlaff

d) ANTEC – B. Arendt

e) Publications – E. Coleman

Council Committee-of-the-Whole

Barbara Arnold-Feret, Chair of the
Committee, conducted the meeting
prior to the formal Council meeting.

The next formal Council meeting is
scheduled for Saturday, January 21st,
2006 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ¦

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Roger Fox David A. J. Morgese
(630) 653-2200
www.foxmor.com
…………..
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37ThermoformingQUARTERLY

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Milwaukee
2005!!
Milwaukee
2005!!
Milwaukee
2005!!
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 38

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Help Sponsor

Thermoforming®

Q U A R T E R L Y

ONE YR. SPONSORSHIPS

**Please note the increase in sponsorship
rates. This is the first increase since the
inception of the Thermoforming Quarterly
in 1981. We appreciate your continued
support of our award winning publication.

Patron – $625

(Includes 2.25″ x 1.25″ notice)

Benefactor – $2,000

(Includes 4.75″ x 3″ notice)

Questions?

Please Contact:

Laura Pichon

Ex-Tech Plastics
815/678-2131 Ext. 624
lpichon@extechplastics.com

We Appreciate Your Support!

From The Editor

Thermoforming Quarterly

welcomes letters from its

readers. All letters are subject

to editing for clarity and space

and must be signed. Send to:

Mail Bag, Thermoforming

Quarterly, P. O. Box 471,

Lindale, Georgia 30147-1027,

fax 706/295-4276 or e-mail to:

gmathis224@aol.com.

39
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 40

Thermoformers, have
you discovered a
forming tip that you
are willing to share
with your fellow
formers?
A time saver?
Or a cost saver?
Or something that
will save wear and
tear on your machine?
Or your employees?
Then the

TIPS

column
is for you!

Just send Jim Throne a fax at
727-734-5081, outlining your
tip in less than a couple
hundred words. You can
include drawings, sketches,
whatever. Thanks!

41ThermoformingQUARTERLY

YOU ASKED

WE
LISTENED

Due to the many surveys requesting
that we change
the dates of the annual
Thermoforming Conference,
the Board has listened
and beginning in

Sunday,
September 17
through
Wednesday,
September 20,
2006

2006, we are pleased to an-
nounce the new dates.
Renaissance Nashville
Hotel & Nashville
Convention Center

General Chairman:
Martin Stephenson
Placon Corporation
Phone: 608-275-7215
E-Mail:
mstep@placon.com

Technical Chairman:
Mike Lowery
Premier Plastics
Phone: 414-423-5940 Ext. 102
E-Mail:
mikel@lowerytech.com

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2952 N. Leavitt x
Chicago IL 60618 x
Ph (773) 281-4200 x
Fax (773) 281-6185

THERMOFORM TOOLING
———-
———-
sales@umthermoform.comwww.umthermoform.com
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 42

® ®
Society of Plastics Engineers

MEMBERSHIP

P.O. Box 403, Brookfield, CT 06804-0403 USA
Tel: +1.203.740.5403 Fax: +1.203.775.8490 www.4spe.org APPLICATION
..CHECK ..VISA ..AMEX ..MASTERCARD
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Checks must be drawn on US or Canadian banks in US or Canadian funds.
My Primary Division is (choose from below)
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company/college:
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(..) Preferred Mailing Address: ..Home ..Business
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address:
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Phone/Fax Format: USA & Canada: (xxx) xxx-xxxx All Others: +xx(xx) x xxx xxxx
Email: used for society business only
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The SPE Online Membership Directory is included with
membership. Your information will automatically be included.
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Applicant Information
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TOTAL
By signing below I agree to be governed by the Constitution
and Bylaws of the Society and to promote the objectives of
the Society. I certify that the statements made in the
application are correct and I authorize SPE and its affiliates
to use my phone, fax, address and email to contact me.
signature date
recommended by member (optional) Id #
D
PAYMENT MUST ACCOMPANY APPLICATION
Sorry, No Purchase Orders Accepted
Dues include a 1-year subscription to Plastics Engineering magazine.
SPE membership is valid for twelve months from the month your application is processed.
*save over 10%
..Medical Plastics (D36)
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..Plastics Environmental (D40)
..Polymer Analysis (D33)
..Polymer Modifiers & Additives (D38)
..Product Design & Development (D41)
..Rotational Molding (D42)
..Thermoforming (D25)
..Thermoforming, European (D43)
..Thermoplastic Materials & Foams (D29)
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Additional Divisions are available for a fee. Check below to select Additional Divisions.
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Materials (choose all that apply)
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..Film ..Polystyrene
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Process (choose all that apply)
..Blow Molding ..Injection Molding
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43
Thermoforming
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TIM WELDON
General Manager
(989) 793-8881
Fax (989) 793-8888
Email: timweldon@millermold.com
ThermoformingQUARTERLY 441305 Lincoln Avenue, Holland, MI 49423
PH (800) 833-1305 / FX (800) 832-5536
www.allenx.com
ABS ABSFR PCABS
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SOLARKOTE
A Tradition of Excellence Since 1970
When it comes to answering your
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than Producto.

• Complete turnkey service
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• Deliveries to suit your schedules
• Mold beds up to 70″ x 120″
• Engineering design using the latest
CAD systems and programming
technologies
• Gun drilling services and
Temperature Control Plates
• Adjustable Pressure Boxes
• Die sets, punches and dies, springs,
pins & bushings and a full line of
quality accessory items
Producto Corporation

800 Union Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06607

(203) 367-8675
FAX: (203) 368-2597

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PRODUCTS / INC
plastics………
RAY
™
The Experts in
Thermoforming
1700 Chablis Avenue
Ontario, CA 91761
909/390-9906
800/423-7859
FAX 909/390-9896
www.rayplastics.com
Brian Ray
CUSTOM CUT SHEET & ROLL FED MACHINERY
OVEN, CONTROL & INDEX RETROFIT KITS
PATENTED ADJUSTABLE CLAMP FRAMES
3031 GUERNSEY ROAD, BEAVERTON, MI
PH: 989-435-9071 FAX: 989-435-3940
Email: info@modernmachineinc.com
President
brianr@rayplastics.com
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ARES … CNC
MACHINING
CENTERS FOR
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PLASTIC AND
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MATERIALS
CMS NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Grand Rapids, MI
800.225.5267
Visit us on the web at:
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or email us at
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Standex Engraving Group
5901 Lewis Rd.
Sandston, VA 23150

Ph: 804/236-3065

Fax: 804/226-3462

45
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

STOPOL, INC. / MAAC
SCHOLARSHIP FUND
RAISES $30,000

SOLON, Ohio (October 5, 2005) – More than 350 trade show visitors attended the Sept. 25 Casino Night at the Society
of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Thermoforming Division 2005 trade show in Milwaukee, helping Stopol, Inc. and MAAC
Machinery raise over $30,000 for the SPE Thermoforming Division ‘s Student Scholarship Fund. The fund helps solidify
the long-term future and viability of the plastics industry by helping develop engineering talent. Solon, Ohio-based
Stopol is a leader in arranging the acquisition and sale of production equipment and machinery, businesses, divisions,
product lines, and manufacturing licenses in the plastics industry. Headquartered in Carol Stream, Ill., MAAC is one of
the top thermoforming machinery companies in the United States, providing a wide array of manufacturing services.

Hosted and sponsored by Stopol and MAAC, Casino Night allowed attendees to experience the thrill and excitement
of blackjack, craps and Texas Hold’em while bidding on donated prizes during a live auction. The $30,000 generated by
donors’ contributions and Casino Night went directly to the SPE Thermoforming Division’s Student Scholarship Fund.
“This was the ninth year we sponsored the scholarship fund and the amount of money raised may be largest ever,” said
Paul V. Alongi, MAAC CEO and founder. “Teaming up with Stopol really paid off. The students who receive these
scholarships are the real winners.”

The SPE Student Scholarship Fund offers scholarships to students who have demonstrated or expressed an interest in
the plastics industry. Applicants must be majoring in or taking courses that would be beneficial to a career in the plastics
industry, including plastics engineering, polymer science, chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, mechanical
engineering, and industrial engineering.

“We couldn’t be happier with the results,” said Donald Kruschke, Stopol’s Executive Vice President. “The industry
really stepped up to the plate with their donations and made a strong statement about how important education is to the
future of plastics.”

Prizes were donated by plastics industry companies, executives and organizations, including Wilbert Plastics Services
Inc., Primex Plastics Corp., Dow Chemical Company, Pelican International, Irwin Research and Development Inc., Modern
Machinery, Senoplast USA Inc., Brown Machine LLC, Ex-Tech Plastics Inc., Spartech Corp., G.N. Plastics Company Ltd.,
Tooling Tech Inc., Sencorp Inc., Solar Plastics Inc., Geiss, New Hampshire Plastics Inc., Lyle Industries Inc., Portage
Casting Mold Inc., Plastics Concepts and Innovations LLC.

About Stopol, Inc.:

Headquartered in Solon, Ohio, Stopol is a privately held corporation specializing in arranging the acquisition and
sale of production equipment and machinery, businesses, divisions, product lines, and manufacturing licenses in the
plastics industry. With unparalleled insight into the business market and the value of potential acquisitions, Stopol takes
efficient, tactical approaches to connecting buyers and sellers in the plastics industry. In direct contact with more than
27,000 manufacturers, Stopol serves as a strategic partner for merger and acquisition opportunities, helping companies
find cost-effective solutions while maximizing their resources.

About MAAC Machinery:

Headquartered in Carol Stream, Ill., MAAC Machinery provides an extensive array of thermoforming manufacturing
services. Founded by Paul V. Alongi in 1982, MAAC is the fastest growing U.S. manufacturer of sheet fed thermoforming
machinery. Integrating a world class application engineering staff with a new state-of-the art, MAAC provides an array
of thermoforming services including plant assessments, machinery modifications (rebuilds, retrofits and upgrades),
training, parts programming and repairs. Comprised of thermoformers, programmers and technicians, MAAC’s team
of highly trained service technicians is available 24 hours a day to deliver the solutions you need to keep your operations
up and running as smoothly as possible. ¦

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 46

Letters to the Editor

Dear Gwen,

Thank you very much for taking
time out of your busy schedule to
answer all my questions prior to
the Conference. As this was the
first ever conference for MAGI
Control, I wanted to make sure I
dotted my “I’s” and crossed my
“T’s,” especially as an exhibitor.

You had a wonderful staff working
with you throughout the conference.
They were all very courteous
and helpful. I’d especially like to
recognize the great work done by
Peter Vari and his team (Roger,
Steve, Justine, etc.). The set-up and
tear-down of our booth was flawless
and we could not have done it
without them.

The 2005 SPE Thermoforming
Conference last week in Milwaukee
proved to be very successful for
MAGI Control and its first official
public demonstration of our MAGI-
Therm Industrial Controller.

It was a pleasure to finally meet
you and I look forward to working
with you again in the future.

Sincerely,

Gino Lalli

President

MAGI Control Inc.

Gwen,

I wanted to personally and
sincerely thank you for allowing
me the opportunity to attend this
year’s Thermoforming Conference
and Exhibition. It was a rare
chance to see not only cutting edge
technologies, but also to learn from
thermoformers from all over the
world. Our SPE chapter here at ISU
benefits so much from attending
conferences such as this one. I was
fortunate enough to have attended
Jim Throne’s “Roll Fed Workshop”
and I learned quite a bit from him.
He is a great speaker and teacher. I
also enjoyed sitting in on Norman
Lee’s “Product Design and Development
Workshop.” I think the high
point of the weekend came Sunday
night when I won a portable DVD
player with the money that I won
playing blackjack at the Casino

Night. The evening was very fun
and the Museum was beautiful. I
am definitely looking forward to
next year’s event. Again, thank
you so very much for affording me
this unique and worthwhile opportunity.
It is an experience that I
will not soon forget.

Sincerely,

Jared R. Bierbaum

Illinois State University

SPE Student Chapter

Dear Gwen,

I want to thank you on behalf of
the Thermoforming Division for
another great opportunity to attend
the 2005 Annual Conference. My
students and I enjoyed attending
the James Throne presentation
Saturday. We also enjoyed the
exhibition – especially the CNC
milling machine set-ups. The Taste
of Milwaukee – superb.

I was impressed by John Torinus
and his story and I always like to
hear what Peter Mooney has to say
about the global economic picture.

Two special treats this year: 1)
the magnificent setting for the
awards dinner – not to forget
Manfred Jacob’s moving acceptance
speech, and 2) the very entertaining
Casino Night.

Please pass my thanks also to the
folks coordinating the grant program.
The MAAC ASP machine I
was able to purchase thanks to the
Division has opened another
platform for product development
in my lab. Both my students and I
routinely use the machine to design
prototype products.

Gratefully,

Lou Reifschneider

SPE Thermoforming Division Board
of Directors

Good Day,

I attended the 2005
Thermoforming Conference and
wanted to thank you and the staff
for a magnificent event.

I have been out of the industry
for a number of years and found

the Conference a welcome sign that
there are people out there who take
thermoforming as a serious business.
I can only hope that future
conferences have a broader scope.
Those of us in the high speed thin
sheet roll feed part of the industry
felt like Oliver Twist asking “Please
sir, can I have some more?”

As for you and the event itself,
you can be proud of your hard
work and the final results. The
presentation dinner on Sunday
night was particularly notable.

Rich Motill

Proex Inc.

SPE Thermoforming Division Board
of Directors

It is with utmost gratitude and
appreciation that I write this note.
The students, faculty and administration
of the plastics engineering
technology program at Pittsburg
State University would like to
thank you for inviting us to participate
in the 2005 Conference in
Milwaukee. It was a very rewarding
experience for our students,
Lucas Stallbaumer, Adienne Wiltse,
Rama Etekallapalli, Bernice Nzioki,
Kim Acinger and myself, who
attended the conference. The
innovations in plastics
thermoforming, processes and
materials, plant tour, and the
associated networking were some of
the gains achieved at this year’s
conference, and we are very
grateful that you allowed us the
opportunity to be part of this.

May you continue to experience
growth and prosperity, and it is
our hope at PSU that you will
continue to value the partnership
we have with you. We look forward
to future activities with you. Best
regards.

Chris Ibeh, Director

Center for Nanocomposites and

Multifunctional Materials

Professor, Plastics Engineering

Technology

Pittsburg State University

Pittsburg, KS

47
Thermoforming
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INDEX OF SPONSORS

ADVANCED VENTURES IN

TECHNOLOGY, INC. …………….. 36
ALLEN EXTRUDERS ……………….. 44
AMERICAN CATALYTIC

TECHNOLOGIES ………………….. 16
ARISTECH ACRYLICS ……………… 13
ALTUGLAS INTERNATIONAL ……. 34
BROWN MACHINE ………………….. 41
CMS NORTH AMERICA ……………. 45
CMT MATERIALS, INC. …………….. 44
EDWARD D. SEGEN & CO. ………. 42

ENSINGER/PENN FIBRE ………….. 33
FILTRONA EXTRUSION ……………. 38
FOXMOR GROUP ……………………. 37
FUTURE MOLD CORP. …………….. 45
GEISS THERMOFORMING ……….. 40
GENESIS MACHINES ………………. 37
GN PLASTICS …………………………. 37
IRWIN RESEARCH &

DEVELOPMENT …………………… 14
JRM INTERNATIONAL ……………… 13
KIEFEL TECHNOLOGY …………….. 33

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QUARTERLY

ThermoformingQUARTERLY 48

KYDEX …………………………………… 48
LAND INSTRUMENTS ……………… 17
LANXESS ……………………………….. 37
LYLE ………………………………………. 35
MAAC MACHINERY …………………. 45
McCLARIN PLASTICS………………. 44
McCONNELL CO. …………………….. 17
MILLER MOLD CO. ………………….. 44
MODERN MACHINERY ……………. 45
NEW CASTLE INDUSTRIES ……… 39
ONSRUD CUTTER …………………… 37
PLASTICS CONCEPTS………………11
PLASTIMACH ………………………….. 41
PORTAGE CASTING & MOLD,

INC……………………………………… 17
PREMIER MATERIAL CONCEPTS. 17
PRIMEX PLASTICS ………………….. 44
PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES .. 44
PRODUCTIVE PLASTICS, INC. …. 17
PRODUCTO CORPORATION ……. 44
PROFILE PLASTICS ………………… 17
PROTHERM ……………………………. 38
RAY PRODUCTS, INC………………. 45
ROBOTIC PRODUCTION

TECHNOLOGY …………………….. 27
RTP ……………………………………….. 41
SELECT PLASTICS………………….. 45
SENCORP ………………………………. 48
SOLAR PRODUCTS ………………….. 1
SPARTECH PLASTICS …………….. 45
STANDEX ENGRAVING GROUP .. 45
STOPOL INC. ………………………….. 34
TEMPCO ELECTRIC ………………… 16
THERMWOOD CORP…….Inside Back

Cover
TOOLING TECHNOLOGY, LLC ….. 13
TPS ……………………………………….. 45
ULTRA-METRIC TOOL CO. ……….. 42
WALTON PLASTICS…………………. 39
WECO PRODUCTS …………………. 38
WELEX, INC. …………………………… 39
ZED INDUSTRIES ……………………. 44

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