Quarterly Mags: 2006 2nd

Contents

Thermoforming

®

Q U A R T E R L Y

TECHNICAL SECTION

Lead Technical Article:

Microthermoforming Technology and Applications ……………………………………………… 9

Industry Practice:

Router Bits for the Sign Industry ………………………………………………………………………..15

Industry Practice:

History of Thermoforming – Part IV …………………………………………………………………… 17

Thermoforming 101:

Corners ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book Review:

PVC Handbook…………………………………………………………………………………………………..22

DIVISION ACTIVITIES

Chairman’s Corner …………………………………………………………Inside Front Cover
Membership Memo: A Time For Change …………………………………………………. 2
New Members ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2006 Thermoformer of the Year …………………………………………………………….. 4
2007 Thermoformer of the Year Criteria …………………………………………………. 6
2007 Thermoformer of the Year Nomination Form …………………………………. 7
Spring Board Meeting Schedule……………………………………………………………… 8
Council Report …………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Membership Application ……………………………………………………………………… 31
NPE Thermoforming Show Guide …………………………………………………….. 34-35
Index of Sponsors ………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Board of Directors List…………………………………………………….Inside Back Cover

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

A NOTE TO
PROSPECTIVE
AUTHORS

TFQ is an “equal opportunity”
publisher! You will note that we have
several categories of technical articles,
ranging from the super-high tech
(sometimes with equations!), to
industry practice articles, to book
reviews, how to articles, tutorial
articles, and so on. Got an article that
doesn’t seem to fit in these categories?
Send it to Jim Throne, Technical Editor,
anyway. He’ll fit it in! He promises. [By
the way, if you are submitting an
article, Jim would appreciate it on
CD-ROM in DOC format. All graphs
and photos should be black and white
and of sufficient size and contrast to
be scannable. Thanks.]

Thermoforming

®

QUARTERLY

A JOURNAL PUBLISHED EACH CALENDAR
QUARTER BY THE THERMOFORMING DIVISION
OF THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS

Editor

Gwen Mathis

(706) 235-9298 • Fax (706) 295-4276
gmathis224@aol.com
Technical Editor

Dr. James Throne

Sherwood Technologies, Inc.
1797 Santa Barbara Drive
Dunedin, FL 34698-3347
1-800-273-6370 • Fax (727) 734-5081
throne@foamandform.com
jthrone@tampabay.rr.com

Sponsorships

Laura Pichon

(815) 678-2131 Ext. 624
Fax (815) 678-4248
lpichon@extechplastics.com
Thermoforming Quarterly® is published four times annually
as an informational and educational bulletin
to the members of the Society of Plastics
Engineers, Thermoforming Division, and the
thermoforming industry. The name, “Thermoforming
Quarterly®” and its logotype, are registered trademarks
of the Thermoforming Division of the Society
of Plastics Engineers, Inc. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without prior written permission of the publisher,
copyright holder. Opinions of the authors are their
own, and the publishers cannot be held responsible
for opinions or representations of any unsolicited
material. Printed in the U.S.A.

Thermoforming Quarterly® is registered in the US
Patent and Trademark Office (Registration no.
2,229,747).

1
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

MEMBERSHIP MEMO

TIME FOR
A CHANGE

BY MIKE SIROTNAK, MEMBERSHIP CHAIRMAN

I
I
joined the SPE Thermo

sponsibility of being on the

Alongi the parts you are
forming Division in 1996,

Executive Board and taking

most proud of.
shortly after accepting a

the position of Secretary. I

Your new Membership
position with Solar Products.

will be replacing Roger Fox

Chair will be Conor Carlin of
I went to my first Board of

who has done an excellent

Sencorp Industries. I believe
Directors meeting in January

job for many years.

that Conor’s youth and interof
1997 in Las Vegas to find

I am very excited about

national experience will be a
out what this was all about.

our upcoming conference in

great bonus to the
The people at this

Division. I have
meeting were not only

known Conor for

MEMBERSHIP REPORT

very big players in the

many years and con

as of 3/15/06

Thermoforming In

sider him one of my
dustry but were excep

closest friends in this
tional people. It did not Primary Paid…………………..1,164 industry. I hope that
take long for Randy

all of you will contin-

Secondary Paid ………………….507

Blin, Steve Hasselbach,

ue to support this Di-
Steve Spelts, Phil Total Membership…………..1,671 vision and continue to
Scalvini and Dick Roe

support the recruit-

Goal as of 6/30/2007 ………2,000

to take me under their

ment of new memwings
and get me

bers.
elected to the Board. A year

Nashville. Marty Stephen-

A good friend of mine allater,
Cathy Hall (Member

son has done an excellent job

ways tells me that change is
ship Chair) left our Industry

along with his Technical

good. I guess we will have to
and Randy and Steve con-

Chair, Mike Book. Nashville

wait and see.
vinced me that being Mem

is an excellent site for our

See you in Nashville.
bership Chair was in my best

Conference and provides ex-

God Bless America!

interest. They could not have

cellent entertainment within
been more right. It has been

walking distance to most
a privilege to be your Mem

hotels. I ask that you continbership
Chair for the last 8

ue to support our Parts Comyears.
I have accepted the re

petition and send James

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 2

To Our New Members

Kimberly N.
Acinger
Pittsburg State
University
Pittsburg, Kansas

Leandro Preter
Afonso
Ford Motor
Company
Sao Paulo, SP

Oswaldo Aparicio
Envaica SA
Guatemala

Bret C. Bjerken
Winona,
Minnesota

Chris Bolinsky
Productive
Plastics
Mt. Laurel, New
Jersey

Dave Brown
Georgia Pacific
Easton,

Pennsylvania

Dan Burrie
Waukesha,
Wisconsin

Arthur R.
Castellano
Ray Products
Company
Ontario,
California

Christian D.
Colaizzi
Natrona Heights,
Pennsylvania

Wayne D’Angelo
DALB
Keaneysville,

West Virginia

Brett Dougherty
Jetta Corporation
Edmond,

Oklahoma

Josh Dougherty
Productive
Plastics
Mt. Laurel, New
Jersey

Dogan Erberk

Packaging
Manufacturers
Association

Istanbul, Turkey

Richard W. Fisk
Alga Plastics
Cranston, Rhode

Island

Andrew D.

Fitzsimmons
Fitzpak, Inc.
Cranbury, New

Jersey

Alexander D.
Guthrie
Fairfield,
Connecticut

Viral Lad
Sherwood Dash,
Inc.

Brampton,
Ontario –
Canada

Andrew Y.
Levitsky
Chicago, Illinois

Steven Lewis
Lane Company
Minneapolis,

Minnesota

Chris May
Albar Industries
Lapeer, Michigan

Michael Miller
Schneller
Kent, Ohio

Adam J. Miloser
Punxsutawney,
Pennsylvania

Hector Molina
Lamiempaques
SA
Antioquia,
Colombia

Francois Pariseau
Bain Ultra
Saint Nicholas,

QC Canada

Jerome Romkey
GN Plastics
Chester NS,

Canada

Craig S. Scott
St. Paul,
Minnesota

Ron Smith
Fabri – Form
Company
New Concord,
Ohio

Dan Tall
Lane Company
Minneapolis,

Minnesota

Guillaume

Thivierge
Bain Ultra
Saint Nicholas,

QC Canada

Doug Walton

Nike IHM, Inc.

Beaverton,
Oregon

WHY JOIN?

It has never been more important to be a member of your professional society
than now, in the current climate of change and volatility in the plastics industry.
Now, more than ever, the information you access and the personal networks you
create can and will directly impact your future and your career.

Active membership in SPE:

• keeps you current
• keeps you informed
• keeps you connected
The question really isn’t “why join?” but …

WHY NOT?

3
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2006 THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR

Paul V. Alongi, CEO

MAAC Machinery, Carol Stream, Illinois

P
P
aul Alongi was born and raised
in Chicago. His first job out of
college was to work for Power Transmission
Equipment Co. (PTE), one of
Chicago’s largest and most prestigious
power transmission engineering
firms. There for 15 years, he
honed his skills as a transmission
specialist and also where, in 1970, he
was introduced to the thermoforming
industry. One of his assignments
was to become account manager
to Comet Industries, where he
provided engineering and product
selection to one of the largest manufacturers
of thermoforming equipment
in our industry.

As the years progressed with the
engineering firm, Paul was provided
with an opportunity to become the
engineering source with start-up
companies named Kostur and CAM.
These were short-lived arrangements,
but whetted his appetite for
manufacturing thermoforming
equipment. In 1982, he created
MAAC Machinery Co. He has managed
his firm to become one of the
largest cut-sheet thermoforming
machinery manufacturers in the
world. MAAC machines are located
all across the world and are known
for their performance, innovativeness,
long life, and low maintenance.
In 1996, he purchased Comet Industries
and had the pleasure, once
again, of working with Bob Kostur
during the final years of his career.
In 1998, he purchased CAM and now
all three companies are represented
by MAAC.

Paul has always been very supportive
of the SPE Thermoforming
Division and its mission to advance
technology through education, application,
promotion and research.
MAAC is one of the senior sponsors
of the conferences since 1993. Paul
has orchestrated numerous fundraising
events for the scholarship
fund, donating all proceeds from

these events to the Thermoforming
Division’s scholarship fund. The latest
event at Milwaukee was the most
successful ever and netted $30,000 to
the scholarship fund. Beginning in
2001, Paul pledged to match the SPE
Thermoforming Division’s equipment
grant of $10,000 per college.
This program is ongoing today and
has been very successful in providing
many universities with brand
new equipment.

Paul has been an engineering force
behind the technical development of
the cut-sheet thermoforming machinery.
Many of the industries’ standard
machinery features today are
the direct result of his creativity. Paul,
along with his engineering department,
has developed many of the innovations
that have since become the
benchmark for today’s machinery
standard. For example, high sheet
line design, breathable ovens, color
changing elements, finite element
zoning, on voltage heating elements,
oven energy saving software, standard
non contact sheet temperature
measurement, adjustable clamp
frame, absolute encoder motorized
platens, etc.

During his career, Paul has taken
on many difficult projects to assist

thermoformers across the country
and the world. Providing turn-key
services which takes on full responsibility
for the machine, mold, material,
process, finished part and cycle
time, which has eliminated the age
old problem of split responsibilities.
There are many people who are successful
in the thermoforming business
today because of Paul Alongi.
Paul has always been a proponent of
education. The training program at
MAAC could have been limited to
instructions on how to operate the
machinery. Instead, it encompasses
oven zoning techniques and includes
training on forming temperatures,
materials, molds and forming sequencing.
He is a long standing
member of the Society of Plastics Engineers
(SPE) and has been active
and supportive towards the SPE
Thermoforming Division. Many of
our members will testify that Paul
was responsible for their introduction
to our division. MAAC has been
a sponsor for the annual conference
since 1993, a sponsor for the European
Division since its inception, and
has funded MAAC employees to be
active members of the Thermoforming
Division here and in Europe.

Paul is CEO and Director of Engineering
of MAAC Machinery and is
continually driving the processes’ capabilities
to the next level. Paul’s 25
years at the helm has produced a consistent
direction of business development
of new equipment for the
thermoforming industry. His most
recent new product line was the
Royce Router, which was introduced
last September. Paul is very active in
the business and also has the pleasure
of working with three of his four
sons and his brother who have joined
him in his pursuit of making the best
thermoforming equipment. ¦

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 4

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Need help with
your technical
school or
college
expenses?

I
I
f you or someone you
know is working
towards a career in the
plastic industry, let the SPE
Thermoforming Division
help support those
education goals.

“FORMING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES:

Our mission is to
facilitate the advancement

GRANTS AND SCHOLARSHIPS OFFERED BY

of thermoforming

THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS –

technologies through

THERMOFORMING DIVISION”

education, application,

The Thermoforming Division of SPE has produced a new

promotion, and research.

six-minute DVD for educators.

Within this past year alone,
our organization has

The DVD discusses the 13 matching equipment grants of up to

$10,000 and how to apply for the grant. The 20 scholarships to

college students are discussed and information is provided as

awarded multiple

scholarships! Get involved

how to apply for a scholarship. The Thermoforming Division of

and take advantage of

SPE has contributed over $150,000 in equipment grants and

available support from your

scholarships as of this date.

plastic industry!

The DVD is free of charge and available from SPE through

Start by completing the

Gail Bristol at 203-740-5447 or Gwen Mathis,

application forms at

Thermoforming Division, at 706-235-9298.

www.thermoformingdivision.com
or at www.4spe.com. The
deadline for applications is
January 15th, 2007. ¦

5
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Visit the SPE
website at
www.4spe.org

THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR
CRITERIA FOR 2007

E
E
very year The SPE Thermoforming
Division selects a individual
who has made a outstanding
contribution to our industry and
awards them the Thermoformer of
the Year award.

The award in the past has gone
to industry pioneers like Bo Stratton
and Sam Shapiro, who were among
the first to found thermoforming
companies and develop our industry.
We have included machine designers
and builders Gaylord Brown
and Robert Butzko and toolmaker
John Greip, individuals who helped
develop the equipment and mold
ideas we all use today. We have
also honored engineers like Lew
Blanchard and Stephen Sweig, who
developed and patented new methods
of thermoforming. Additionally,
we have featured educators like Bill
McConnell, Jim Throne and
Herman R. Osmers, who have both
spread the word and were key figures
in founding the Thermoforming
Division.

We’re looking for more individuals
like these and we’re turning to
the Thermoforming community to
find them. Requirements would include
several of the following:

.Founder or Owner of a
Thermoforming Company
.Patents Developed
.Is currently active in or recently
retired from the Thermoforming
Industry
.Is a Processor – or capable of
processing
.Someone who developed new
markets for or started a new
trend or style of Thermoforming
.Significant contributions to the
work of the Thermoforming
Division Board of Directors
.Has made a significant educational
contribution to the
Thermoforming Industry.
If you would like to bring someone
who meets some or all of these
requirements to the attention of the
Thermoforming Division, please fill
out a nomination form and a oneto
two-page biography and forward
it to:

Thermoforming Division Awards

Committee

% Productive Plastics, Inc.

Hal Gilham

103 West Park Drive

Mt. Laurel, NJ 08045

Tel: 856-778-4300

Fax: 856-234-3310

Email:
halg@productiveplastics.com

You can also find the form and see all the past
winners at www.thermoformingdivision.com in
the Thermoformer of the Year section.

You can submit nominations and bios at any time
but please keep in mind our deadline for
submissions is no later than December 1st of
each year, so nominations received after that
time will go forward to the next year.

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 6

Thermoformers of the Year …

1982

William K. McConnell, Jr.
McConnell Company

1983

E. Bowman Stratton, Jr.
Auto-Vac Corp.
1984

Gaylord Brown, Brown Machine

1985

Robert L. Butzko

Thermtrol Corp.

1986

George Wiss, Plastofilm Industries

1987

Dr. Herman R. Osmers

Educator & Consultant

1988

Robert Kittridge
Fabri-Kal Corporation

1989

Jack Pregont, Prent Corporation

1990

Ripley W. Gage, Gage Industries

1991

Stanley Rosen
Mold Systems Corp.

1992

Samuel Shapiro
Maryland Cup
Sweetheart Plastics

1993

John Grundy, Profile Plastics

1994

R. Lewis Blanchard
Dow Chemical
1995

James L. Blin, Triangle Plastics

1996

John Griep
Portage Casting & Mold

1997

John S. Hopple, Hopple Plastics

1998

Lyle Shuert, Shuert Industries

1999

Art Buckel, McConnell Company

2000

Dr. James Throne
Sherwood Technologies

2001

Joseph Pregont, Prent Corp.

2002

Stephen Sweig, Profile Plastics

2003

William Benjamin
Benjamin Mfg.

2004

Steve Hasselbach, CMI Plastics

2005

Manfred Jacob
Jacob Kunststofftechnik

2006

Paul Alongi, MAAC Machinery

THERMOFORMER OF
THE YEAR 2007

Presented at the September 2007 Thermoforming Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio

The Awards Committee is now accepting nominations for the 2007
THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR. Please help us by identifying worthy candidates.
This prestigious honor will be awarded to a member of our industry that has made
a significant contribution to the Thermoforming Industry in a Technical, Educational,
or Management aspect of Thermoforming. Nominees will be evaluated
and voted on by the Thermoforming Board of Directors at the Winter 2007 meeting.
The deadline for submitting nominations is December 1st, 2006. Please complete
the form below and include all biographical information.

Person Nominated: _______________________________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Street Address: _____________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Telephone: _________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Biographical Information:

•
Nominee’s Experience in the Thermoforming Industry.
•
Nominee’s Education (include degrees, year granted, name and location of
university)
•
Prior corporate or academic affiliations (include company and/or institutions,
title, and approximate dates of affiliations)
•
Professional society affiliations
•
Professional honors and awards.
•
Publications and patents (please attach list).
•
Evaluation of the effect of this individual’s achievement on technology and
progress of the plastics industry. (To support nomination, attach substantial
documentation of these achievements.)
•
Other significant accomplishments in the field of plastics.
•
Professional achievements in plastics (summarize specific achievements upon
which this nomination is based on a separate sheet).
Individual Submitting Nomination: _______________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Phone: ____________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Signature: ______________________________________ Date: ____________________
(ALL NOMINATIONS MUST BE SIGNED)

Please submit all nominations to: Hal Gilham,
Productive Plastics, 103 West Park Drive
Mt. Laurel, New Jersey 08045

7
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

THERMOFORMING
DIVISION
SPRING BOARD
MEETING SCHEDULE

May 3rd – 7th, 2006
Hilton Oceanfront Resort

23 Ocean Lane
Hilton Head, South Carolina
www.hiltonceanfrontresort.com

(Fly into Savannah, Georgia Airport – 40
Minute Drive; Take I-95 N to Exit #8 Hwy.
278 East – take left at Palmetto Dunes – two
miles to Hilton Gate)

Roundtrip via Low Country Adventures from
Airport – $24.00

Cab Roundtrip – $24.00

FOR RESERVATIONS: Call 843-842-8000
Request SPE Room Rate of $189.00

Wednesday, May 3rd, 2006
Executive Committee Arrive
Technical Chairs Arrive

Thursday, May 4th, 2006

7:30 am – 8:00 am – Breakfast
8:00 am – 10:00 am – Technical Chairs
Meet with Executive Committee
10:00 am – 5:00 p.m. – Executive
Committee Meeting
11:00 am – Noon – James Alongi,
Finance Committee Meet with
Executive Committee
Friday, May 5th, 2006

9:00 am – 11:00 am – Materials
Committee – Promenade 1
9:00 am – 11:00 am – Machinery
Committee – Promenade 8
9:00 am – 11:00 am – Processing
Committee – Captain’s Galley A
12:00 pm – 1:00 pm – Lunch – Captain’s
Galley B
1:00 pm – 5:00 pm – All Other
Committees – Captain’s Galley B
5:30 pm – Trolley departs from hotel
lobby for dinner at Charley’s Crab
Saturday, May 6th, 2006

7:30 am – 8:30 am – Breakfast –
Promenade 8
8:30 am – Noon – Board of Directors
Meeting – Promenade 6-7
Sunday, May 7th, 2006

Depart

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 8

LEAD TECHNICAL ARTICLE

Microthermoforming Technology
and Applications1

BY R. TRUCKENMUELLER, FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM KARLSRUHE, GERMANY
S. GISELBRECHT, FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM KARLSRUHE, GERMANY
AND J. L. THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FLORIDA

Abstract

Unlike injection molding, thermoforming has not
participated in the growing polymer microengineering
industry. This paper points out why and
how this may change in the near future. We detail
the recent development of thermoformed microproducts
at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany.
The microformed parts shown in this paper represent
promising early applications. Thermo-formed
microparts have some unique properties that result
from their special morphologies. Some of the many
potential applications that may take advantage of
these characteristics are discussed in this paper.

Introduction

For more than two decades, polymer
microengineering [1] has been a rapidly growing
industry producing microproducts, defined here as
products containing structures with dimensions
between 0.1 and 1000 m. These products may be
simple parts, single sensor and actuator
microcomponents, or complex microsystems
consisting of several components including
packaging, electronics, and power supplies.
Microproducts have become an integral part of our
daily life, with applications ranging from automotive
to life sciences.

Injection molding is the major polymer
microreplication method [2]. To date, thermoforming
has not participated in microengineering. The
apparent reason for this is that there seemed to be no
appropriate microthermoforming production process
and no specific innovative applications for
microthermoformed products. Researchers at
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe have now developed

1 A portion of this paper was presented at the 2006 European
Thermoforming Division Conference, Salzburg, Austria, 18 March
2006.

a microscale thermoforming process and have
fabricated microproducts for a promising important
application.

The novel process discussed herein is called
‘microthermoforming.’ It seems particularly suited
for mass production of polymer microchips for fluidic
applications. The primary application is in life
sciences for single use products such as “lab on a
chip” or LOC microdevices [4] or for “micrototal
analysis systems” or  TAS [3]. Synthesis and analysis
of biochemical agents for pharmaceutical active
substance research take places in these microfluidic
chips.

Below we discuss the novel microprocess, the
corresponding press, the tolls and the semi-finished
goods, being chips for capillary electrophoresis (CE)
and a chip for the in-vitro cultivation of living cells.
Some of the many potential applications that can be
derived from the unique properties of thermoformed
microparts are discussed.

Microthermoforming Process

The current microprocess is a microscopic
adaptation of the macroscopic trapped sheet forming
technique [5]. In a press, a thin thermoplastic film is
heated by contact with hot plates and formed with
compressed gas into evacuated microcavities in a
mold. In a second step in the same press, the
thermoformed film is heat-sealed onto another
polymer film without demolding it. With this
technique, liquid-tight fluidic microstructures such
as microchannels and reservoirs are fabricated in one
unit. This process is more efficient than microinjection
molding or the special micropolymer replication
method known as vacuum hot embossing [6].

In addition, the process provides various pre- and
post-processes such as surface and bulk modification
normally associated with thermoforming but not

(continued on next page)

9
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

possible with other processes. The technology yields
unique patterned, functionalized, and perforated
three-dimensional microstructures such as those for
in-vitro cell cultivation shown below.

The Press

As noted, the new microthermoforming process
evolved from the relatively simple trapped sheet
forming process. The three-part mold consists of the
plate-shaped mold with micromold cavities, a
counterplate with holes for evacuation and gas
pressurization, and a seal between the mold and the
counterplate. The thermoplastic film is inserted in the
mold and the mold assembly is mounted in a heated
laboratory press. The press is closed to the point
where vacuum sealing is achieved but the film is not
yet clamped between the mold plates. The mold is
evacuated, then completely closed, completely.
clamping and heating the film. When the polymer
has reached forming temperature, the film is forced
into the evacuated mold cavities with compressed
gas. The mold is cooled. When the mold is about 20°C
below the forming temperature of the polymer, the
gas pressure is released, the mold opened, and the
microstructure is demolded.

Secondary Process

If the part is to be a closed container, a second film
is inserted into the press after the first film is formed
but before the microstructure is demolded. The
second film contains a heat-activated adhesive. The
press is closed again, pressing the second film against
the formed microstructure to activate the adhesive
and form the container. In essence, the microproduct
is twin-sheet thermoformed. Liquid-tight products
that compete with microinjection molded and
vacuum hot embossed products, such as
microchannels and reservoirs are produced in this
fashion. Pre- and post-processing of the sheet to
achieve surface and bulk modification can be
combined with the twin-sheet forming process.
Examples include ion bombardment before forming,
ion track etching after forming, UV-based surface
modification through appropriate masks before
forming, and wet chemical functionalization after
forming. In this way, patterned, functionalized, and
perforated, three-dimensional (3D) microstructures
are produced from membranes that find use in invitro-
like three-dimensional cell cultivation as seen
below.

The Mold

Molds for polymer microreplication can be
fabricated by various methods and from various
materials. Mechanical micromachining [7], lithographic-
based methods in combination with
electroplating [1], wet or dry etching, laser ablation,
powder blasting, and electrical discharge machining
have been used. Metal, ceramic, glass, and silicon
carbide have been used as mold materials. Nickel
molds with high-resolution, high-aspect ratio
structures with smooth sidewalls are fabricated using
the “LIGA” process [1]. Large area brass or special
steel molds with high planarity and plane parallelism
have been fabricated using high-speed, highprecision
cutting. End-mill cutters are commercially
available in diamond with diameters down to 200 m
and in special steel with diameters down to 30 m.

For fabrication of the CE and cell culture chips
discussed below, the molds and counterplates were
made of circular brass (Ms58) with a diameter of 116
mm, Figure 1.

Figure 1. Brass mold with 16 microcavities for microthermoforming
of CE chip.

The flatness and parallelism of the ground brass
plates are about three mm and the surface roughness
(Ra) is about 0.2 m. The mold cavities were
mechanically micromachined using diamond endmills,
Figure 2.

The cavities have a surface roughness of about 0.15
m and draft angles of 1.5 to 2 degrees. The outer
edges of the microcavities were not deliberately
smoothed. For the CE chips, the cavities had draft
angles of 5 degrees. They also had 20 m wide 45degree
bevels to facilitate demolding, Figure 2. The
mold was used not only for thermoforming of the PS

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 10

Figure 2. SEM of the micromold cavities for the cell culture chip.
Diameter and depth of microcavity is 300 m.

film, but also for subsequent heat-sealing of the
formed film onto another PS film. The mold did not
require remanufacture to include the heat-sealing
step.

Film Materials

For the CE chips, a 25-m film of impact-resistant,
biaxially oriented PS (Norflex from Norddeutsche
Seekabelwerke, HIPS styrene butadiene blown-film
polymer) was used as the semi-finished product. For
fabrication of the cell culture chip, 50 m thin films
of polycarbonate (Pokalon from LOFO, cast film) and
of COP (Zeonor from Zeon) were chosen.

CE Chip Manufacture

In today’s chemical and bioanalytical areas, CE is
a family of related techniques for separation of small
and large molecules. In its simplest form, a small
sample volume is injected into a long capillary tube
or microchannel that has been filled with a buffer
solution. A high voltage is applied by electrodes to
both ends of the capillary and an electrical field is
impressed along the capillary length, causing the
sample to separate into components having different
charge-to-mass ratios. Component detection includes
light absorbance, fluorescence, electrochemical
conductivity, and mass spectrometry measurements.
Miniaturized CE systems [8] offer a number of
advantages when compared with conventional
systems, including lower sample consumption,
higher resolution, shorter response time, and parallel
architecture [9].

The thermoformed CE chip contains 4 x 4 CE
structures arranged in a 10 mm x 10 mm grid, Figure

3.
Figure 3. CE chips from PS with 16 CE structures (side length of
square chip is 47.5 mm).

Each structure consists of two crossed
microchannels with reservoirs at their ends. One
channel is for sample separation, and the other for
injection of the sample into the separation channel,
Figure 4. Each channel has a width of about 150 m
and a depth of about 75 m. The corner radii of the
channel intersections are 125 m.

Figure 4. CE chip structure being filled with colored water for flow
and leak testing (width of separation and injection channel approximately
150 m, channel depth approximately 75 m).

Thermoforming and sealing of the CE chips was
performed in two consecutive cycles of the heating
press, with an intermediate feed of the second film.
During this interim opening of the mold, the

(continued on next page)

11
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

(continued from previous page)

thermoformed film was not demolded. The fluidic
microstructures were formed into the PS film at 115°C
with nitrogen at an absolute pressure of 0.5 MPa. The
formed first film was then heat-sealed to the second
planar film at temperatures between 75 and 80°C. This
was above the minimum heat activation temperature
of the heat-activated coating (about 60°C) on the
second film but well below the glass transition
temperature of the PS film. As a result, dimensional
stability of the films was not affected by the heat
sealing.

Cell Culture Chip

Cells extracted from native tissues can be cultured
in artificial environments if they are sufficiently
supplied with nutrients and oxygen. In the past few
years, in-vitro culturing of cells has become
increasingly important to the investigation of the
structure and function of cells. This is particularly
important in the study of biochemical pathways and
developmental processes. And cell cultures are also
being routinely used in pharmaceutical and
biomedical industries to develop and produce
vaccines and antibodies. It is known that threedimensional
or 3D cultures have superior properties
when compared with standard two-dimensional or
2D monolayer cultures, particularly in long-term
maintenance of cellular functions.

An interdisciplinary group at Forschungszentrum
Karlsruhe has developed a platform based on
bioreactors. The platform contains a varying number
of microstructured polymer scaffolds for 3D cell
cultivation in a chip format [10]. When compared with
other 3D culture strategies [11], this device allows for
better adjustment and control of specific culture
conditions. In particular, the supply situation is
improved.

The up-scale versions of these bioreactors are not
only intended to be used for high throughput
screening applications in pharmaceutical research but
also as extracorporeal organ support units in the
rapidly growing field of regenerative medicine. For
a bioartificial liver, for example, a large number of
long-term viable and functional liver cell,
approximately 10 to 30% of the total liver mass, is
essential to guarantee sufficient support of a patient’s
impaired liver [11]. Although several million cells can
be cultured on a single microchip, more than 10,000
microchips are still needed for one patient.

Microscale thermoforming opens up the possibility
for a high-volume mass production of low-cost
disposable cell culture chips as a fundamental
premise for this application. A smaller number of cell
chips have already been fabricated [12]. The
thermoformed cell culture chip contains 25 x 25 cell
containers arranged on a 400 x 400 m grid, Figure 5.

Figure 5. SEM photos of COP cell culture chip (formed as 625-up).

The cylindrical microcontainers have a diameter
and depth of about 300 m. The microstructures were
thermoformed at a pressure of up to 6 MPa. Because
of the high local stretch ratio, the microcontainer
bottoms have thicknesses down to about 5 m. Figure
6 shows a PC microcontainer that has been formed
from a film that has been treated with ion track
technology. The micropores provide for two-sided
supply of the cell aggregates in the containers with
dissolved nutrients and oxygen.

Figure 6. SEM of cell container, microthermoformed of ion-track
treated PC (diameter, depth ~ 350 m, pore size < 3 m). Different kinds of cells, cell lines and primary cells, have already been three-dimensionally cultured in these chip containers, as shown in Figure 7. It is expected that the combination of microthermoforming and various surface and bulk modification techniques will enable the tailoring of the cell microenvironment within the scaffold [13], as seen in Figure 8. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 12 Figure 7. SEM of cell containers with 3D HepG2 cultivated cells inside. Figure 8. PS thermoformed cell container with L929 fibroblasts (crystal violet stained) selectively adhering to DUV-exposed areas on the inner container surface. Properties That Lead to New Microthermoformed Part Applications The microscopic version of contact sheet forming has the same process advantages as the familiar macroscopic version. However, there are additional specific advantages that are achieved only in microscale dimensions. For example, thermoformed microfluidic products have unique combinations of properties that are unattainable with other polymer microreplication methods. The microthermoformed hollow membrane microstructure are free standing, they have walls of a few micrometers in thickness, and can have very smooth inside surfaces that are difficult or impossible to achieve with other methods. Characteristically they have small volume and mass, high flexibility, low thermal resistance and heat capacity, and low light absorption, light scattering and background fluorescence. These properties should result in improved current products and products that are just now being conceived. The small amount of formed material allows for biodegradable human implants having short lifetimes and organism-gentle decomposition. The small amount of formed polymer also provides for one-way medical diagnosis applications where contaminated clinical waste must be reckoned with. The properties of low stiffness and high flexibility of the thermoformed microproducts provide for combinations with “polytronic” applications. These properties are also desired in functional or ‘smart textiles,’ and in applications onto the free-form surface of human skin and in implantation applications under the skin or into soft tissue. Because of the flexibility of the film format, reel-to-reel processes are possible not only in production but also in application such as in high throughput screening of active or toxic substances. For example, hermetically sealed thermoformed fluidic microstructures that are sterilized and empty, or partially liquid filled, can be opened at the instant they are to be used, simply by puncturing the thin stretched film at the reservoirs, Figure 4. Conclusions and Observations In this paper, we have presented an early look at thermoforming of microproducts. We have developed a new process, called ‘microthermoforming.’ Currently, it is a microscopic version of conventional macroscopic trapped sheet thermoforming. In essence, a simple three-part mold is mounted into a heated laboratory press. Commercially available thin thermoplastic films on the order of 25 to 50 m are used. Flexible CE and cell culture chips have been fabricated. Many potential applications using the unique properties of thermoformed microparts have been discussed. Work continues on the technology. Automated pressure build-up and mechanized demolding technologies are underway. As noted, the current technology requires the mold to be sequentially heated and cooled. Work is continuing on advanced heating concepts where the mold temperature will remain constant and the film feed heated prior to entering the press. The objective of this work is to (continued on next page) 13 Thermoforming QUARTERLY (continued from previous page) reduce the process cycle time and improve the process reproducibility. ¦ References 1. W. Menz, J. Mohr, and O. Paul, Microsystem Technology, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim Germany, 1st Ed., 2000. 2. V. Piotter, K. Mueller, K. Plewa, R. Ruprecht, and J. Hausselt, “Performance and Simulation of Thermoplastic Micro Injection Molding,” Microsystem Technologies, 8, 2002, pp. 387-390. 3. A. Manz, N. Graber and H.M. Widmer, “Miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis Systems: A Novel Concept for Chemical Sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B1, 1990, pp. 244-248. 4. S. C. Jacobson, R. Hergenroeder, L. B. Koutny, and J. M. Ramsey, “High-Speed Separations on a Microchip,” J. Analytical Chemistry, 66, 1994, pp. 1114-1118. 5. J. L. Throne, Technology of Thermoforming, Hanser, Munich Germany, 1996. 6. M. Heckele, W. Bacher, and K. D. Mueller, “Hot Embossing – The Molding Technique for Plastic Microstructures,” Microsystem Technologies, 4, 1998, pp. 122-124. 7. T. Schaller, M. Heckele, and R. Ruprecht, “Mechanical Micromachining Effenhauser, and A. Manz, “Micromachining a Minia-turized Capillary Electro-phoresis-Based Chemical Analysis System on a Chip,” Science, 261, 1993, pp. 895-897. 10. G. Knedlitschek, F. Schneider, E. Gotwald, T. Schaller, E. Eschbach, and K. F. Weibezahn, “A Tissue-Like Culture System Using Microstructures: Influences of Extracellular Matrix Material on Cell Adhesion and Aggregation,” J. Biomechanical Engineering, 121, 1999, pp. 35-39. 11. J. W. Allen, T. Hassanein, and S. N. Bhatia, “Advances in Bioartificial Liver Devices,” Hepatology, 34, 2001, pp. 447-455. 12. S. Giselbrecht, T. Gietzelt, A. E. Guber, E. Gottwand, C. Trautmann, R. Truckenmueller, and K. F. Weibezahn, “Microthermoforming as a Novel Technique for Manufacturing Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering (CellChips),” Proc. Nanobiotechnology, 151, 2004, pp. 151-157. 13. S. Giselbrecht, E. Gottwald, G. Schlingloff, A. Schober, R. Truckenmueller, K. F. Weibezahn, and A. Welle, “Highly Adaptable Microstructured 3D Cell Culture Platform in the 96 Well Format for Stem Cell Differentiation and Characterization,” Proc. 9th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (TAS), Boston, 2005, pp. 376-378. for Mold Insert Fabrication and These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Replication,” ASPE Proc. Spring Topical Meeting, Chapel Hill, NC, 1999, pp. 4-8. 8. A. Manz, D. J. Harrison, E. Verpoorte, J.C. Fettinger, A. Paulus, H. Luedi, and H.M. Widmer, “Planar Chip Technology for Miniaturization and Integration of Separation Techniques into Monitoring Systems: Capillary Electrophoresis on a Chip,” J. Chromatography, 593, 1992, pp. 253-258. 9. D. J. Harrison, K. I. Fluri, K. Seiler, Z. Fan, C.S. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 14 INDUSTRY PRACTICE Router Bits for the Sign Industry1 VAN NISER CUTTER, LP, LIBERTYVILLE, ONSRUD, ILLINOIS S S igns and the information they convey have become an integral part of daily life. Companies of various sizes serve this vast market, but they all have common problems when it comes to routing of the materials common to the industry. Wood, aluminum, foam and plastic all have different cutting characteristics and no individual tool can solve all routing problems. This is particularly evident in the routing of plastics in the sign industry. As a starting point, plastics can be placed into two general categories: flexible and rigid. The tools of choice for flexible plastic usually involve the use of single or double edge “O” flute tools, which are available in straight or spiral flute configurations. In terms of rigid plastics, double edge straight “V” flute tools, spiral “O” flutes with hard plastic geometry, and two and three flute finishers are recommended. The tool materials for most of these router bits are readily available in highspeed steel for hand operations and solid carbide for CNC routing. Solid carbide is a very durable material when utilized in a controlled environment of CNC, but not reliable in hand routing, which tends to be less rigid with more opportunity for tool breakage. The aforementioned recommendations are general in nature and are just a beginning for tool selection. In order to target an application, the sign maker has a new resource on the Internet at www.plasticrouting.com. This site provides a specific tool recommendation for a variety of plastic materials. The major emphasis of this web site is to recommend router tools that provide the best finish at a productive feed rate. Sign makers, who historically use smaller diameter tools to achieve the necessary radii associated with lettering, will be pleasantly surprised. The tool diameter is the controlling factor in feed rate, but larger diameters were not necessarily superior in terms of finish. The use of micro grain carbide with the necessary geometry to achieve chip evacuation has made smaller diameter tools more effective for the sign industry. The site can also be accessed via a link on IAPD’s website at www.iapd.org. 1 This Industry Practice article is reprinted, by permission, from Onsrud Cutter LP, Libertyville, IL, www.onsrud.com. Copyright is retained by Onsrud and cannot be reproduced without expressed permission of the copyright owner. Recently, there have been several new styles of specialty tools developed to improve finishes with faster cycle times without tool changes and or advanced programming techniques. Both should prove to be advantageous to the sign industry. The first of these tools was developed to provide a smooth bottom surface in lettering or pocketing applications. Most router tools are designed to plunge and rout with the emphasis on the side geometry rather than the point. Consequently, the point end would always leave swirl marks, which required a secondary operation to remove the swirls. The new tool, Figure 1, utilizes a near flat point with radiused corners to create a smooth bottom with an aesthetically pleasing result. The second innovation, Figure 2, is the development of a rout and chamfer bit designed for plastic sheets. Figure 1. Figure 2. Solid Carbide Bottom Solid Carbide Rout Surfacing and Chamfer By combining both a straight flute optimized for cutting plastics with a cutting edge sized for specific sheet sizes and a 45 degree chamfer edge, these tools can rout out plastic parts and apply a variable depth edge chamfer in a single pass. By combining these features into a single tool, tool changes within the machining cycle are eliminated and CNC routers without tool changing spindles have new capabilities for parts production. The advances in router tooling have generally followed the rapid growth and usage of CNC routers or router tables as they are commonly called in the sign industry. These machines have revolutionized the speed and accuracy of sign making and the ability to produce intricate shapes and designs with specialized software. Router tooling has enhanced the CNC user by providing (continued on next page) 15 Thermoforming QUARTERLY (continued from previous page) stronger tools with improved cutting geometry specific to the material being machined. However, merely choosing the correct tool without effective machining practices is an exercise in futility. Consequently, a review of proper machining practices would be in order. • Maintain CNC machines per manufacturer’s recommendation with proper lubrication of machine slides and drive systems • Check for play in the table or spindle mounting systems • Establish a collet, collet nut, and tool holder maintenance program and replace collets after 600700 hours of usage • Insure part rigidity by following proper spoilboard technique • Establish colleting procedures to maximize tool rigidity • Maximize chipload to minimize tool wear • Select tools with the shortest possible cutting edge length to achieve depth of cut • Use straight through tools where the cutting edge length and shank are the same size to reduce breakage • Maximize dust collection to completely evacuate gummy chips produced by some plastics The right tool for the job and sound CNC machining practices will improve throughput, product quality and profitability in the sign industry. ¦ These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Thermoforming QUARTERLY 16 INDUSTRY PRACTICE History of Thermoforming – Part IV BY STANLEY R. ROSEN, PLASTIMACH CORPORATION, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA Ed. Note: The philosopher Santayana said “Those who cannot remember the past are destined to repeat it.” Stan Rosen is undertaking a prodigious project – identifying the pioneers who laid the foundations of the industry we know so well. Although shaping of sheet extends back to pre-history – oil-heated and shaped tortoise shell and steam-heated and shaped wood. In TFQ 24:3, Stan started his history with developments in the 1930s. We hope you are enjoying the trip! Mechanically Forming Thermoplastics Parts Prior to the Thermoforming Age – Part Two Eventually Celluloid or camphorated cellulose nitrate (a close cousin to the explosive nitrocellulose) was supplanted by the safer, much slower burning cellulose acetate. During World War II the Celanese Corp. produced various-shaped nitrocellulose deep drawn packaging to be filled with explosive charges, Figure 4. This package material added to the explosive force and left no residue. Initially these package components were deep drawn using the inefficient manual forming methods of the period. Because of the high military demands, the process was automated and a continuous web was fed from a roll into the machine instead of the manual placement of individual blanks, increasing production tenfold. After the war ended, versions of the automated deep drawing machines were available for civilian production. A patent filed in May 1944 was issued to Earl F. Middleton and assigned to Design Center, NYC, one of Plaxall Corp.’s divisions, for a “Process and Apparatus for Shaping Plastics,” Figure 5. This machine fed a web from a roll of plastics into clamps built on each of two parallel chains that gripped the sheet edges. The web is then indexed through a heating station and forming press, with the waste skeleton ejected from the press. The process is similar to a modern in-line thermoforming machine except vacuum or air pressure was not used to form the finished parts. As the press closes, the punch trims out a plastic blank which when free from the web is located concentric to the forming die. The forming proceeds in the same manner as the manual deep drawing process described in a previous part. This machine and its later modifications provided Plaxall Corp. with a very productive asset to supply deep drawn transparent packaging to the industry during 1945-1950s, see Figure 6 on next page. Jim Pfohl, President of Plaxall Corp. indicated that during this period, Design Center Inc. successfully licensed this machine for use in European countries. (continued on next page) 17 Thermoforming QUARTERLY (continued from previous page) (continued from previous page) Another wartime technique of free-air blowing of acrylic developed for forming transparent aircraft cockpit canopies was adapted to form plastic map globes on very simple equipment, Figure 7. The plastic was oven heated, transferred and clamped to a round air pressure chamber and blown into a perfect hemisphere. Distortion- printed silk screened blanks with as many as five colors were used for the map details. After trimming, the southern and northern hemispheres were cemented together at the equator to complete the assembly. Free-air blowing required precision manual coordination between the operator and the heated sheet to produce an accurate map presentation consistently. Conventional metal stamping equipment and dies were the preferred mass production method for factories in the 1940s and the plastic processes took second place. B. F. Goodrich, manufacturer of rigid PVC, sought to sell their resin to the metal fabricators by educating them on how to apply existing dies and presses to PVC sheet. A standard progressive die which may contain multiple stations that might emboss, bend, punch holes, draw shallow box sections, and finally trim out finished parts were used for plastics fabrication. Rolls of PVC stock are indexed into the die after being preheated by a bank of infrared bulbs mounted inline with the dies. These punch presses operate at 50-250 strokes per minute rapidly enough so the web residual heat was retained thru the cycle. Any of the companies who still remain in the metal stamping business today, soon realized there are more effective ways of fabricating plastics to serve their customers. Transparent PVC folding boxes were manufactured using a modified folding box die on a standard flatbed die cutting press, Figure 8. (continued on page 19) Thermoforming QUARTERLY 18 Steel rule dies mounted in a metal base plate electrically heated and temperature controlled allowed the creasing blades to create a hinge which allowed the plastic panels to be bent 90° without cracking. The box perimeter profile was trimmed out, using standard steel rule blades cutting simultaneously with the creasing action. These folding boxes are favored by many retail shops that did not have sufficient storage space for packaging, yet favor a transparent platform for their products. When thermoplastic sheet thicker than 0.060 inch or 1.6 mm became commercially available to form signs, displays, and components for refrigerators, they were fabricated on tooling similar to the metal forming dies steel used to stamp car fenders. Fortunately, heated plastics do not require the heavy force needed to form steel stamping, so low cost pneumatic presses were adapted for this purpose, Figure 9. Matched molds of epoxy or wood with conforming male and female cavities are mounted on the opposing press platens. This tool design is similar to modern thermoforming molds that produce foam styrene egg cartons. Matched mold forming of thick plastic sheet requires oven heated blanks which are manually transported to the forming press and clamped into custom welded steel clamp frames. Components to be formed are designed with generous draft angles and large radii to try to maintain uniform wall thickness. Since neither vacuum nor air pressure was utilized, the male tool is bottomed-out in the female cavity to sharpen critical part detail. By combining the matched mold process and pre-blowing a sheet bubble above the female cavity, a more uniform wall thickness can be achieved, Figure 10. This process was employed from the 1940s to the late 1980s. When the author visited a large thermoforming plant in 1990 complete with the latest equipment, he spotted a battery of these ancient machines on standby. The owner indicated many of his sign maker customers need all types of individual plastics letters in various formats and colors. These were small quantity orders and he was able to accommodate the buyers using amortized stock molds and antique presses. The mechanical thermoforming techniques held center stage only for a short period until thermoforming took away their markets in the 1950s. Thermoforming, with its obvious advantages of low cost tooling, versatility and high production, soon became the dominant process for forming plastic parts and mechanical forming became a historical footnote. ¦ Please contact the author with any relevant information, photos, articles, brochures, or stories about thermoforming during the 1950-1960 era at: Stan Rosen, thermoipp@earthlink.net, P/F: 702-254-3666 or write 10209 Button Willow Dr., Las Vegas NV 89134. (continued on next page) 19 Thermoforming QUARTERLY (continued from previous page) References Automatic Pressure Thermoforming, Plaxall Corp., L.I.C., N. Y. Modern Plastics Magazine, July 1953. Inline Roll-Fed Thermoformer, C. B. Strauch, Patent #2,229,613, filed 11-22-1938, assigned to Plax Corp. Hartford, CN. Vacuum Forming Machine, G. W. Borkland, Patent #2,347,806, filed 7-8-1947, assigned to Borkland Laboratories, Marion, IN. Figure 4 Automatic Deep Drawing of Nitrocellulose Packaging for Explosives, Celanese Plastics Corp., Newark, N. J. Modern Packaging Magazine, April 1945, pgs. 94-96 and 176. Figure 5 Continuous Plastics Deep Drawing Machine, E. A. Middleton, Patent #2,522,956, filed 5-18-1944, assigned to Design Center, Inc., L.I.C., N. Y. Figure 6 Ad for Deep Drawn Transparent Packaging, Plaxall Corp., L.I.C., N. Y. Modern Packaging Encyclopedia, 1948. Figure 7 Free Air Blown Globes, Farquhar Transparent Globes, Philadelphia, PA. Plastics World Magazine. Conventional Metal Stamping of PVC, B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co., Cleveland, OH. Plastics World Magazine, October 1954. Figure 8 Method for Fabricating Folding Cartons, L. R. Page, Jr. Patent #2,589,022, filed 6-21-1948, assigned to Robert Gair Company, N. Y., N. Y. Figure 9 Air Powered Press for Matched Mold Forming, ad for Hanna Air Cylinder, Chicago, IL, Modern Plastics Magazine, April 1950. Figure 10 Pre-Blowing Plastic Sheet for Uniform Wall Thickness, Modern Plastics Magazine, May 1950, pg. 67. ¦ These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY PERFORMANCE. INNOVATION. DEPENDABILITY. Proven Partnership. Worldwide Benefits. For the best in trim-in-place and high volume thermo- forming equipment, parts and service, talk to the global experts at Lyle and Gabler. Call 989-435-7717 for details, or visit lyleindustries.com. 4144 W. Lyle Road ¦Beaverton, MI 48612www.gabler-maschinenbau.de Thermoforming QUARTERLY 20 CORNERS BY JIM THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FL M M ost plastic parts have corners. And most corners are radiused. Designers often seek sharp corners or more properly, corners with very small radii. Aesthetics is often cited as the reason for this. But aesthetics is not the only reason. Often the container must contain material of a specific volume. For a given dimensioned container, the internal volume decreases with increasing corner radii. Conversely, for a given volume, the overall dimensions of the container (and thus the amount of plastic needed to make the container) increase with increasing corner radii. In this lesson, we consider the concept of the corner. Can a Part Have More Than One Type of Corner? Of course. Consider the simplest type of corner, being the place where two planes intersect. Picture the bottom edge of an axisymmetric part as a drink cup or a can, for instance. The vertical or near-vertical side of the container intersects the bottom of the container at a right or near-right angle, thus forming the corner, in this case, a bottom two-dimensional or 2D corner. Of course, any good thermoformer worth his or her salt would not make a sharp angle at the intersection. The reason for this is intuitively obvious but THERMOFORMING 101 will be explained in a little more detail later. Is there more than one type of corner on a five-sided box? Sure. There’s the intersection between the vertical wall and the bottom. And the intersection between one vertical wall and another. And what about the intersection between two vertical walls and the bottom? So we have bottom two-dimensional or 2D corners, vertical 2D corners, and in the last case, three-dimensional or 3D corners. And, as with the cup or can example, corners should have radii. We must keep in mind that the plastic stretches from the sheet that is not contacting the mold surface. As more and more of the plastic sheet contact the mold surface, the sheet not contacting the mold becomes thinner and thinner. For a part such as a cup or can, the plastic stretches into the bottom 2D corner last. As a result, the material in the corner is usually the thinnest. Although mechanical and pneumatic assists help redistribute the sheet during stretching, the part wall is usually thin in the corners. And smaller corner radii usually lead to thinner part walls. In other words, sharp corners lead to thin-walled parts in corners. Wall Thickness in 2D Corners The wall thickness in the bottom 2D corner of a five-sided box is proportional to the corner radius to about the 0.4-power. If the design calls for a radius in one area of the bottom of the part that is 50% of that in another area of the bottom of the part, the part thickness in that area will have about 75% of the thickness of the other area. If the design radius is 25%, the thickness in that area will be about 55% of that of the other area. Interestingly enough, wall thickness in vertical 2D corners is about equal to wall thickness of surfaces adjacent to the corners. This is probably because the part walls in the vertical corners are formed at the same time the part walls of adjacent surfaces are formed and not (continued on next page) 21 Thermoforming QUARTERLY (continued from previous page) afterwards, as is the case with bottom 2D corners. Wall Thickness in 3D Corners The wall thickness in the 3D corner of a five-sided box decreases in proportion to the corner radius to the 1.0-power. If a design calls for a 3D radius in one corner of the part that is 50% of that in another corner of the part, the part thickness in that corner will have 50% of the thickness in the other corner. If the corner design radius is 25%, the part thickness will be 25% of that in the other corner. Why are we concerned about part wall thickness in 3D corners? Because many of our parts are similar to the five-sided box we’ve used as an example. And five-sided boxes are often filled and handled during shipping, installation, and use. And 3D corners of five-sided boxes are most susceptible to impacting. In an earlier lesson we discussed that when we stretched a sheet, we thinned it. We needed greater forces to stretch the sheet to greater and greater extent. And when we cooled the sheet we locked in the stresses we used to stretch the sheet. So when we impact the 3D corner of the formed part, we are applying stress on top of those already frozen into the corner. On top of this, the 3D corner is very thin. In short, sharplyradiused corners are often desired by designers but of great concern to thermoformers. As a result, the designer must often accept greater radiuses than he/she desires. In a subsequent lesson, we consider alternative designs for corners, as well as other product features. ¦ Keywords: vertical 2D corner, bottom 2D corner, 3D corner, corner radius BOOK REVIEW PVC Handbook, C. E. Wilkes, J. W. Summers, and C. A. Daniels, Eds., Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati OH, 2005, 723 + xxxvi pages, $202, $170 (SPE Member). I I love handbooks, don’t you? They reside somewhere between multi-volume encyclopedias and dictionaries. Dictionaries present us with a brief sentence or two on a specific word. Encyclopedias give us paragraphs on essentially every aspect of the editors’ intended topic area. A handbook, by definition, is “ … a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location.” In this case, the subject is polyvinyl chloride, in all its many forms. This one is probably not a fair representation of a concise book, as it is a truly weighty tome at just over 4 pounds (1.9 kg) and consisting of more than 700 pages and perhaps 150,000 words. This one-volume compendium on nearly every aspect of polyvinyl chloride is, in essence, an update and recapitulation of materials found in the 1980’s tomes such as Leonard Nass’ fourvolume Encyclopedia of PVC, Luis Gomez’ Engineering With Rigid PVC, and R. H. Burgess’ Manufacturing and Processing of PVC, and W. V. Titow’s PVC Technology and PVC Plastics, and many others. The three editors, all former long-term BFGoodrich Geon Vinyl Division employees, are now each heading his own consulting firm. Many of the chapter authors are also former BFGoodrich employees from the Avon Lake, Ohio facility. The book is dedicated to Dr. Waldo Semon, a long-time BFGoodrich researcher who pioneered the development of plasticizers in PVC. The editors also credit the work by Jim White and Joe Kennedy and their coworkers at University of Akron for the renaissance in PVC polymer development, work funded in part by BFGoodrich. At least 18 of the 29 authors and editors are from Ohio. This would imply that the work is very parochial. Only the first chapter seems this way, with the frequent lauding of BFGoodrich accomplishments in the developmental days of PVC in the United States. And although many of the people are from Ohio, most have done their homework by carefully researching work done in other parts of the world. The book consists of 19 chapters, beginning with the production of vinyl chloride monomer and continuing through polymerization, stabilizing, plasticizing, additives, fillers, blends and alloys. Sections on flexible PVC and specialty resins are included. The processing section includes chapters on compounding and fabrication processes. There are sections on property characterization, weathering, and flammability. There are chapters on product design, applications, and environmental concerns. And the book concludes with a chapter on global marketing. There are more than 1350 references, for those who need to know more. [And you thought that because PVC is such an old polymer, there was nothing left to write about!] The good things about the work? It seems to be a fair compilation of nearly all aspects of PVC production. The Editors state that the “handbook contains both practical formulation information as well as a mechanistic view of why PVC behaves as it does.” I Thermoforming QUARTERLY 22 23 Thermoforming QUARTERLY . Outstanding for ABS, PC/ABS, PVC and HIPS .Weatherable and easy to fabricate . Excellent gloss control – from flat matte to ultra high gloss . Chemical- , scratch- and UV-resistant . Available in metallic, clear or any color www.solarkote.com Phone: 215.419.7982 Fax: 215.419.5512 E-mail: andrew.horvath@altuglasint.com Acrylic Capstock and Film Capstock solutions for thermoformed sheet. Altuglas® and Solarkote® are registered trademarks belonging to Arkema. © 2005 Arkema Inc. All rights reserved. These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Auctions • Appraisals • Liquidations New and Used Machinery Sales Thermoforming • Injection Molding • Extrusion Blow Molding • Rotational Molding Supplying the World with Plastic Processing Equipment Why buy with Stopol: .... If it is out there, we will find it. With our database of more than 27,000 companies, we will locate the equipment you need. .... Our expertise and knowledge will provide you with the best machines to meet your needs. .... Our vast inventory provides you with a variety of choices and alternatives. .... Photos and video footage are available. Why sell with Stopol: .... Actively market your equipment to more than 27,000 companies, utilizing phone, fax, email and advertising campaigns to get your equipment in front of qualified buyers. .... We include your equipment on our web site which produces more than 125,000 hits per month. .... We team with the most recognized and trusted publications in the plastics industry -- Plastics News, Modern Plastics, Plastics Hotline and Thermoforming Quarterly -- to market your equipment. .... Global presence with offices in London and Shanghai. Whether its remarketed plastics processing equipment, a plant auction, inventory liquidation, or the sale and acquisition of a business, product line, or manufacturing license – Stopol is the resource. STOPOL NEWS Lyle Industries, Inc. has announced the appointment of Stopol, Inc. as exclusive representatives to market the Lyle RFT Custom thermoformer and related equipment in North America. The RFT Custom offers complete form-trim stack capabilities in an economical, rugged package. Standard mold size is 32 x 36 inches. An available quick-change tooling package helps make the RFT Custom a versatile, efficient choice for a variety of applications, and the heavy duty construction helps ensure durability and precise thermoforming performance. Stopol Office- Europe London Berkeley Square 2nd Floor Berkeley SquareHouse London, W1J 68DUK Phone: +44 (0) 207-887-6102 Fax: +44 (0) 207-887-6100 Eu_sales@stopol.com Stopol Office - Asia Shanghai One Corporate Center 15F One Corporate Avenue 22 Hu Bin Road LuWan District Phone: +86 21 6122 1302 Fax: +86 21 6122 2418 Ap_sales@stopol.com believe nearly all the authors have posited well-written treatises on their selected topics. For the most part, the writing appears tight and well organized, and the chapters proceed logically from PVC creation through process and product to environmental issues. It appears that the editors have achieved their objectives. The bad things? I believe that the work makes short shrift of the extensive work done outside the United States. I found few (if any) references to work in Russia, Japan, Germany, and France, where there have been extensive PVC developments in the past two decades. Although some chapters include patent references, many do not. I had hoped to find a complete listing of worldwide PVC producers and their capacities. But I was disappointed. As we all know, there are worldwide efforts afoot to ban or restrict the use of PVC in many products, particularly disposable packaging. These issues are addressed in several chapters, sometimes more shrilly than necessary to make a point. As an example, it is strongly argued that dioxin, a toxic byproduct of PVC combustion, has been found in lake sediments and ice cores from the 1860s, long before the creation or combustion of PVC. [Take that, Greenies!] And finally, the subject index is about 21-1/2 doublecolumn pages, or about 1,700 citations, which this reviewer believes is quite short for such an extensive effort. There are some proper names mixed into the subject index but no “names” index. Nevertheless, it’s a major achievement in a mature technology and worth four-and-ahalf books out of five. ~ Jim Throne Council Report … Albuquerque, New Mexico BY LOLA CARERE, COUNCILOR T T his summary is intended to help you review the highlights of the Council meeting held in Albuquerque on January 21st, 2006. Please note that all supporting documentation remains available to Councilors and Section/ Division board members at: http:/ /extranet.4spe.org/ council/index.php?dir=January %202006%20Albuquerque/. SPE President Len Czuba called the meeting to order. The Council weekend format was as follows: • Councilor Orientation – this session was provided as an orientation for new Councilors. •Council Committee of the Whole – there was a separate shortened version of the Council Committee of the Whole meeting • Special SPE Business Meeting – this Business Meeting was called in order to vote on the dissolution of the SPE Constitution. The motion carried. • Council Meeting – a formal Council meeting was held. Officers were elected. Elections: Council elected the following people as Society officers for the 2006-2007 term, which begins at ANTEC (May 7th-11th): President-Elect – Vicki Flaris Senior Vice President – William O’Connell Vice President (nominated by the Sections Committee) – Barbara Arnold-Feret In addition to these formal offices, each year Council also elects a Chair for the Council Committee of the Whole. Jim Griffing will hold this position for the 20062007 year. Executive Director’s Update: Executive Director Susan Oderwald provided a report covering changes in staff, headquarters, and activities in developing and growing the Society. Ms. Oderwald shared the activities of staff and major initiatives for the current and coming year and progress on those initiatives. Ms. Oderwald also discussed the financial close-out and communication process as well as planning work for the 2006-2007 SPE year. International development activities were also reviewed. Ms. Oderwald presented the headquarters staff organizational chart. Ms. Oderwald fielded clarifying questions and comments. Treasurer’s Update: Treasurer Paul Andersen reviewed the 2005 financial performance of the Society. Dr. Andersen reported that the rebate process and funds have been reinstituted and rebates are in distribution. Dr. Andersen indicated that the estimate for the net income for 2005 was approximately $75,000 versus a budget of $79,000. Dr. Andersen recognized the technical programming, staff, and leadership work that led to the net positive results. Dr. Andersen also shared the activities of the ongoing Finance Committee review of Plastics Engineering magazine. Further, Dr. Andersen reviewed the critical components of the current budget to meet expenses and grow income leading up to and beyond ANTEC. Other Business: Presentations and discussions also took place on the following topics: ANTEC 2008 GOC & TPC Candidates Committee/Officer Reports 2006-2007 Operating Plan SPE Foundation Update 2nd Reading and Vote to Adopt New Bylaws: Mr. O’Connell moved that the Council approve the revised Bylaws, as presented at the September 2005 Council meeting, for implementation immediately following a successful membership vote to dissolve the Constitution, and further moved that this motion be declared null and void if, by January 1st, 2007, the membership has not voted to dissolve the Constitution. The motion was seconded. There were several clarifying questions that were answered by Mr. Czuba, Vice President Neward, and Mr. O’Connell. The motion carried. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 24 Mr. Czuba reminded the group of the upcoming work to ensure that the general membership vote on this important issue. It was noted that a quorum was present for the above motion, with more than 70 Councilors voting. The vote was unanimous with no abstentions. New Student Chapter: Council approved the charter of a new Student Chapter at Bronx Community College, New York. Dr. Flaris provided a brief overview on the new Chapter. Committee Meetings: Fifteen committees met prior to the Council meetings: ANTEC Committee Communications Committee Conference Committee Constitution & Bylaws Committee Divisions Committee Education Awards Committee Executive Committee Finance Committee International ANTEC International Committee Plastics Engineering Editorial Board Sections Committee Student Activities Committee SPE Foundation Executive Committee Training Products Committee Presentations: All presentations and supporting documentation for Council and committee discussions can be viewed on the SPE website at: http://extranet.4spe.org/ council/index.php?dir=January %202006%20Albuquerque/. Contributions: SPE is grateful to the following organizations that made contributions in support of SPE and The SPE Foundation: Detroit Section, acknowledged their sponsorship of the SPE Inter national Essay Contest in 2005. Additionally, Vice President Smith acknowledged the contribution of the Detroit Section to the Katrina Hurricane Relief Fund. Composites and Automotive Divisions, represented by Jim Griffing and Nippani Rao, jointly presented a total of over $13,000 to SPE. Color and Appearance Division, represented by Austin Reid, presented $1,000 to the SPE Foundation and an additional $2,000 contribution to the ANTEC Student Travel Fund. Dr. Reid informed the Council that the Division will also be remitting a check of nearly $30,000 from the Topical Conference. Thermoforming Division, represented by Roger Kipp, Gwen Mathis, and Lola Carere, presented SPE a check for $63,219.87 as the share from the 2005 Thermoforming Conference, their most financially successful conference ever. Additionally, Mr. Kipp shared the use of the funds to add member value, develop student programs, educational grants and support, gifts to the Foundation, and a donation to the American Red Cross for Hurricane Relief. The next formal Council meeting is scheduled for Sunday, May 7th, 2006 in Charlotte, North Carolina. ¦ 25ThermoformingQUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY ThermoformingQUARTERLY 26 ................................ ........................................ ................ .................................................................................. .................................................................. ...................................................... .............................................................................. ........................................................ ............................ ................................................................ .................................................... ................................................................ ................................ .................................................... .......................................... ........................................................................ ...................... .................................................................................. .............................. .................................................................................. ...................................................................................... .................................................................................... Help Sponsor Thermoforming® Q U A R T E R L Y ONE YR. SPONSORSHIPS **Please note the increase in sponsorship rates. This is the first increase since the inception of the Thermoforming Quarterly in 1981. We appreciate your continued support of our award winning publication. Patron - $625 (Includes 2.25" x 1.25" notice) Benefactor - $2,000 (Includes 4.75" x 3" notice) Questions? Please Contact: Laura Pichon Ex-Tech Plastics 815/678-2131 Ext. 624 lpichon@extechplastics.com We Appreciate Your Support! From The Editor Thermoforming Quarterly welcomes letters from its readers. All letters are subject to editing for clarity and space and must be signed. Send to: Mail Bag, Thermoforming Quarterly, P. O. Box 471, Lindale, Georgia 30147-1027, fax 706/295-4276 or e-mail to: gmathis224@aol.com. These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 27ThermoformingQUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish ThermoformingQUARTERLY Thermoforming QUARTERLY 28 Thermoformers, have you discovered a forming tip that you are willing to share with your fellow formers? A time saver? Or a cost saver? Or something that will save wear and tear on your machine? Or your employees? Then the TIPS column is for you! Just send Jim Throne a fax at 727-734-5081, outlining your tip in less than a couple hundred words. You can include drawings, sketches, whatever. Thanks! These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 29ThermoformingQUARTERLY MARK YOUR CALENDAR! 17th Annual Thermoforming Conference “A “A“AD DDA AAP PPT TTI IIN NNG GGTO TOTOFOR FORFORM MMI IING NGNGTH THTHE EEF FFUTU UTUUTUR RRE EE” ”” 2007 THERMOFORMING CONFERENCE SEPTEMBER 16 - 19, 2007 CINCINNATI, OHIO CINERGY CENTER & MILLENNIUM HOTEL CHAIRMAN: KEN GRIEP, PORTAGE CASTING & MOLD TECHNICAL CO-CHAIRS: BRIAN WINTON, MODERN MACHINERY AND CONOR CARLIN, SENCORP PARTS COMPETITION: HAYDN FORWARD, SPECIALTY MANUFACTURING These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 2952 N. Leavitt x Chicago IL 60618 x Ph (773) 281-4200 x Fax (773) 281-6185 THERMOFORM TOOLING ---------- ---------- sales@umthermoform.comwww.umthermoform.com Thermoforming QUARTERLY 30 ® ® Society of Plastics Engineers MEMBERSHIP P.O. Box 403, Brookfield, CT 06804-0403 USA Tel: +1.203.740.5403 Fax: +1.203.775.8490 www.4spe.org APPLICATION ..CHECK ..VISA ..AMEX ..MASTERCARD card number expiration date (mm/yyyy) Checks must be drawn on US or Canadian banks in US or Canadian funds. My Primary Division is (choose from below) Company Name and Business Address (or College): company/college: job title: address: address: city: state: zip: country: (..) Preferred Mailing Address: ..Home ..Business Home Address: address: city: state: zip: country: Fax:Work Phone: Phone/Fax Format: USA & Canada: (xxx) xxx-xxxx All Others: +xx(xx) x xxx xxxx Email: used for society business only Birth Date: (mm/dd/yyyy) Gender: ..Male ..Female The SPE Online Membership Directory is included with membership. 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SPE membership is valid for twelve months from the month your application is processed. *save over 10% ..Medical Plastics (D36) ..Mold Making & Mold Design (D35) ..Plastics Environmental (D40) ..Polymer Analysis (D33) ..Polymer Modifiers & Additives (D38) ..Product Design & Development (D41) ..Rotational Molding (D42) ..Thermoforming (D25) ..Thermoforming, European (D43) ..Thermoplastic Materials & Foams (D29) ..Thermoset (D28) ..Vinyl Plastics (D27) ..Additives & Color Europe (D45) ..Automotive (D31) ..Blow Molding (D30) ..Color & Appearance (D21) ..Composites (D39) ..Decorating & Assembly (D34) ..Electrical & Electronic (D24) ..Engineering Properties & Structure (D26) ..Extrusion (D22) ..Flexible Packaging (D44) ..Injection Molding (D23) ..Marketing & Management (D37) Additional Divisions are available for a fee. Check below to select Additional Divisions. .. 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Home Phone: Demographics Job Function (choose only one) ..Consulting ..Purchasing ..Design ..Quality Control ..Education (Faculty) ..R & D ..Engineer ..Retired ..General Management ..Self-Employed ..Manufacturing ..Student ..Marketing/Sales ..Tech Support ..Other Materials (choose all that apply) ..Composites ..Polyolefins ..Film ..Polystyrene ..General Interest ..TPEs ..Nylon ..Thermoset ..PET ..Vinyls ..Foam/Thermoplastics ..No Interest Process (choose all that apply) ..Blow Molding ..Injection Molding ..Compression ..Mold Making ..Compounding ..Product Design ..Engineering Properties ..Rotational Molding ..Extrusion ..Thermoforming ..Fabrication ..General Interest ..Foam ..No Interest Students must supply graduation date: .. .. 31 Thermoforming QUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY ThermoformingQUARTERLY 32Roger Fox David A. J. Morgese (630) 653-2200 www.foxmor.com 1305 Lincoln Avenue, Holland, MI 49423 PH (800) 833-1305 / FX (800) 832-5536 www.allenx.com ABS ABSFR PCABS HIPS HIPSFR GELOY CENTREX LURAN NORYL SOLARKOTE A Tradition of Excellence Since 1970 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Innovative Tooling Materials for Thermoforming HYTAC®-WFT Plug Assist Material The First Syntactic to Meet FDA and European Compliance for Food Packaging CMT MATERIALS, INC. info@cmtmaterials.com www.cmtmaterials.com TEL (508) 226-3901 FAX (508) 226-3902 • Problem-solving, troubleshooting expertise. • Total in-house production. • Over 30 years of roll experience. • Repair and refinishing services. Call an Xaloy roll specialist today! Heat transfer solutions you can count on 800-897-2830 • 724-656-5600 • E-mail info@us.xaloy.com. • www.xaloy.com • Problem-solving, troubleshooting expertise. • Total in-house production. • Over 30 years of roll experience. • Repair and refinishing services. Call an Xaloy roll specialist today! Heat transfer solutions you can count on 800-897-2830 • 724-656-5600 • E-mail info@us.xaloy.com. • www.xaloy.com 1700 Chablis Avenue RAY President brianr@rayplastics.com ™ Ontario, CA 91761 PRODUCTS / INC .........plastics 909/390-9906 800/423-7859 FAX 909/390-9896 The Experts in Thermoforming www.rayplastics.com CUSTOM CUT SHEET & ROLL FED MACHINERY OVEN, CONTROL & INDEX RETROFIT KITS PATENTED ADJUSTABLE CLAMP FRAMES 3031 GUERNSEY ROAD, BEAVERTON, MI PH: 989-435-9071 FAX: 989-435-3940 Email: info@modernmachineinc.com ARES … CNC MACHINING CENTERS FOR MACHINING PLASTIC AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS ® These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Brian Ray These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Chill Rolls Optimized for You • Design analysis for better heat transfer. • Extrusion know-how from A to Z. Doug Benton Standex Engraving Group 5901 Lewis Rd. Sandston, VA 23150 Ph: 804/236-3065 Fax: 804/226-3462 CMS North America, Inc. www.cmsna.com Grand Rapids, MI www.cms.it 800.225.5267 Fax: 616.698.9730 cmssales@cmsna.com 33 Thermoforming QUARTERLY JUNE 19TH - 23RD, 2006 • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS • McCORMICK PLACE JUNE 19TH - 23RD, 2006 • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS • McCORMICK PLACE Society of Plastic Engineers, Inc. NPE SHOW GUIDE OF THERMOFORMING EXHIBITS 9:00 am - 5:00 pm Monday - Thursday and 9:00 am - 3:00 pm Friday COMPANY NAME THERMOFORMING MACHINERY ADVANCED VENTURES IN TECHNOLOGY ALPHA MARATHON TECHNOLOGIES, INC. BATTENFILED GLOUSTER ENGINEERING CO., INC. BROWN MACHINERY, LLC CANNON/SANDRETTO USA INC. FORMECH, INC. GABLER MASCHINENBAU GMBH GEISS THERMOFORMING USA LLC G.N. PLASTICS LIMITED ILLIG IRWIN RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT KIEFEL, INC. LYLE INDUSTRIES, INC. MYUNG-IL FOAMTEC NESCCO, INC. RAJOO ENGINEERS LIMITED SHENZHEN (CHINA) HISYM INDUSTRIAL, CO., LTD SUNWELL GLOBAL, LTD. THERMOFORM SYSTEMS LLC TONG SHIN PACK CO. LTD TPS (THERMOFORMER PARTS SUPPLIER) VFK HEAD CORP-KOREA MOLDS ARIOSTEA BROWN MACHINE LLC BROWN PLASTICS MACHINERY LLC BRUCKNER INC. CAVAFORM INTERNATIONAL LLC COMMODORE MACHINE COMPANY INC. DONG CHENG JING GONG (H.K.) LTD. EMERSON & CUMING COMPOSITE MATERIALS INC. FAST 4M TOOLING GEISS THERMOFORMING USA LLC G.N. PLASTICS COMPANY LIMITED ILLIG IRWIN RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT KIEFEL TECHNOLOGIES INC. MARBACH MARBACH TOOL & EQUIPMENT, INC. MARBACH WERKZEUGBAU GMBH MC MOLDS, INC. ROCAND TRADE COMMISSION OF SPAIN TPS (THERMOFORMER PARTS SUPPLIERS) VFK HEAD CORP. - KOREA WENTWORTH TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. WESTMINSTER TOOL, INC. TRIMMING MACHINERY ABBEON CAL INC. ANGLE PATTERN & MOLD CORPORATION ARIOSTEA ATS END-OF-ARM-TOOLING CASSCO MACHINES – CASSCO AUTOMATION CB MANUFACTURING & SALES CO., INC. COMMODORE MACHINE COMPANY INC. ESI - EXTRUSION SERVICES, INC. ESTERLE MOLD AND MACHINE COMPANY, INC. FANUC ROBOTICS AMERICA, INC. FAST 4M TOOLING FREMONT PLASTIC MOLDS GEISS THERMOFORMING USA LLC HEARTLAND MOLD AND TOOL, INC. BOOTH # 9404 11032 2515 1409 638 10444 9901 9833 9920 9810 9801 1415 9905 10443 9404 4980 4383 9840 9840 10731 9455 10727 4375 1409 1409 514 3122 3120 7326 7141 11054 9833 9920 9810 9801 1415 9716 9716 9716 1323 11050 9640 9455 10727 10346 9046 11305 1325 4375 10707 911 4423 3120 4046 9361 9620 11054 10503 9833 11149 COMPANY NAME BOOTH # JDV PRODUCTS, INC. 5780 KASS AUTOMATION SYSTEMS, INC. 328 MATTHEWS MARKING PRODUCTS 4349 MC MOLDS, INC. 1323 MID-AMERICA MACHINING, INC. 9458 MILACRON INC. 1702, 1715 MOLDMAKERS INCORPORATED 2570 MORRISON ENTERPRISES CORPORATION 11331 NOGA ENGINEERING LTD. 10462 PMD - PROTOTYPES, MOLDS & DESIGN 2570 SHENZHEN (CHINA) HISYM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. 4383 SONOTRONIC, INC. 4381 SPECIALTY BLADES, INC. 10925 STOPOL, INC. 4216 TECSTAR - ILLINOIS 2570 THERMWOOD CORPORATION 9210 VIRTEK LASER SYSTEMS NORTH AMERICA INC. 8318 EXTRUSION EQUIPMENT ADESCOR 4551 ADVANCED EXTRUDER TECHNOLOGIES (AET) 4372 ALPHA MARATHON TECHNOLOGIES INC. 11032 AMERICAN KUHNE, INC. 6139 AMERICAN MAPLAN CORPORATION 2515 ARIOSTEA 4375 BATTENFELD GLOUCESTER ENGINEERING CO., INC. 2515 BERSTORFF 2102 BREYER GMBH, MASCHINENFABRIK 10550 BRUCKNER INC. 514 CDL TECHNOLOGY, INC. 10422 CHING HSING IRON WORKS CO., LTD 555, 563 CINCINNATI EXTRUSION GMBH 2515 CINCINNATI MILACRON EXTRUSION MACHINERY 1702, 1715 DAVIS-STANDARD, LLC 5107 DELTAPLAST MACHINERY LTD. 4139 DR. COLLIN GMBH 5395 ENTEK EXTRUDERS 1304 EREMA NORTH AMERICA, INC. 1185 ESI - EXTRUSION SERVICES, INC. 4046 GUANGDONG LIANSU MACHINERY MANUFACTURING CO.,LTD 8421 HARREL, INCORPORATED 5709 HPM A TAYLOR’S COMPANY 2115, 2127 HUNTSMAN 11106 ICMA SAN GIORGIO SPA 5089 KRAUSS-MAFFEI CORPORATION, INJECTION MOLDING DIVISION 2102 J.M. MACHINERY CO. LTD. (GUANGDONG JIN MING PLASTICS MACHINERY CO. LTD.) 9846 JWELL (SHANGHAI) MACHINERY CO., LTD. 8405 KRAUSS-MAFFEI CORPORATION 2102 LABTECH ENGINEERING CO., LTD. 4575 LEISTRITZ 5544 LUNG-MENG MACHINERY (USA) INC. 9610 MARIS AMERICA CORPORATION 6371 MARSHALL AND WILLIAMS PLASTICS 5756 MICHIGAN PLASTICS MACHINERY CO. 4369 MORRISON ENTERPRISES CORPORATION 11331 MYUNG-IL FOAMTEC 10443 OMYA, INC. 10801 PARKINSON TECHNOLOGIES INC. 5756 PITAC INTERNATIONAL MACHINERY CO., LTD. 555, 563 PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES INC. 5961 PSI-POLYMER SYSTEMS, INC. 6340 RAJOO ENGINEERS LIMITED 4980 Thermoforming QUARTERLY 34 COMPANY NAME BOOTH # REIFENHAUSER, INC. 2911 SML MASCHINEN GMBH 9946 STARLINGER & CO GMBH 9946 STOPOL, INC. 4216 SUNWELL GLOBAL LTD. 9840 TAIWAN PU CORPORATION 11332 TECHFLOW DESIGN & MANUFACTURING 7001 THEYSOHN VINYL EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 9946 TRIAD SALES, LLC 4106 WAYNE MACHINE & DIE COMPANY 4439 WELEX INCORPORATED 4501 XINXING TWIN SCREW MACHINERY CO., LTD. OF SHANGHAI 5087 YE I MACHINERY FACTORY CO., LTD. 1685 ZHEJIANG JINHAI PLASTIC MACHINERY CO., LTD. 7418 ROBOTICS ACY CORPORATION 4596 AEC / AUTOMATE 1802 ARIOSTEA 4375 ATI INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION 9255 ATS END-OF-ARM-TOOLING 10707 AUTOMATED ASSEMBLIES CORPORATION 1576 BATTENFELD OF AMERICA, INC. 2515 BIELOMATIK 7913 CASSCO MACHINES - CASSCO AUTOMATION 911 CBW AUTOMATION 2538 CINCINNATI MILACRON INJECTION MOLDING 1702, 1715 COLORTRONIC INC. 5026 CONAIR 2649, 2655, 2949, 2955 CUMBERLAND ENGINEERING 2642 ENGEL 2286 FANUC ROBOTICS AMERICA, INC. 9620 GUSMER I DECKER 4333 HFA (HARVARD FACTORY AUTOMATION) 962 HUSKY INJECTION MOLDING SYSTEMS LTD. 2132, 2140 HYROBOTICS CORPORATION 9007 ILSEMANN AUTOMATION 9733 INSOL INC. 5191 JAN YE STEEL MOLD CO., LTD. 524 JK MOLDS, INC. 11244 JR AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES LLC 9620 KAWAGUCHI AMERICA 10942 KONICA MINOLTA 4330 KUKA ROBOTICS 9652 LEMO MASCHINENBAU GMBH 5575 LOGIC ONE ROBOTS 4490 MILACRON INC. 1702, 1715 NEGRI BOSSI USA - SACMI GROUP 1870 NETSTAL MACHINERY, INC. 2616 SAILOR AUTOMATION, INC. 9825 SAS AUTOMATION, LLC 976 SHENZHEN (CHINA) HISYM INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. 4383 SONOTRONIC, INC. 4381 STACKTECK 907 STAR AUTOMATION 549 STAUBLI CORPORATION 1485 STERLING, INC. 1849 STOPOL, INC. 4216 TOSHIBA MACHINE CO., AMERICA 1402 TPS TOOLING PREFORM SYSTEMS 1355 WITTMANN, INC. 2549 YUSHIN AMERICA, INC. 777 ZECCHETTI USA 10340 Thermoforming Technology for Industrial Applications Seminar Instructor: William “Bill” McConnell, Jr. Duration: 2 Days Scheduled: June 19-20, 2006 Purpose & Overview The seminar begins with a thorough review of the basics, allowing all the attendees to be immediately brought up to the same level. The segments on techniques and tooling create a thorough understanding of the practical application of the design theories. The purchasing and marketing segments introduce the production engineer to the realities of the marketplace, while developing a practical outlook for those engaged in those areas. The troubleshooting/heating session alone will be worth the cost and time to the majority of those attending. Testing of Plastics – Its Application to Thermoforming Instructor: Donald Hylton Duration: 1 Day Scheduled: June 21, 2006 Purpose & Overview This one-day seminar is designed to provide a basic understanding of material behavior in thermoforming, sheet extrusion, and part performance. It provides an overview of laboratory tests, the specific material property tested, and how it relates to thermoforming. An explanation of the applicability of tests and its importance is presented. The attendee will understand material properties, what properties to test, how it relates to thermoforming, and why it is important for quality management. Thermoforming Design – Not Just for Designers Seminar Instructor: Robert Browning Duration: 1 Day Scheduled: June 21, 2006 Purpose & Overview This intensive, fast-paced seminar has been taught worldwide, providing a better understanding of thermoforming design, its limitations and advantages. Both designers and non-designers appreciate this straightforward, hands-on course in expanding their knowledge and insight into today’s fast-paced and competitive design world. An industrial designer presents this program with the use of lecture, slides, videos, sketches, samples, real case studies from around the world, along with questions and answers from attendees. Attendees are encouraged to bring questions and their design problems for discussion. Thermoforming Tooling Instructor: Arthur Buckel Duration: 1 Day Scheduled: June 22, 2006 Purpose & Overview This seminar is designed to provide detailed technical knowledge of thermoforming tooling, both forming molds and trimming fixtures and tools. The program is presented with lecture, slides, sketch sheets, and questions and answers. Moving Beyond the Basics – Advanced Heavy Gauge Thermoforming Seminar Instructors: Robert “Bob” Smart, James “Jay” Waddell, E.L. “Ed” Bearse Duration: 2 Day Scheduled: June 22 - 23, 2006 Purpose & Overview This seminar provides an in-depth look at materials and at new advances in the thermoforming process while highlighting advanced materials with an emphasis on TPOs and TPOs w/paint films. The first day focuses on materials, extrusion and quality issues for thermoformers. The second day is devoted to advanced thermoforming processes with advanced materials utilizing case studies. ¦ 35 Thermoforming QUARTERLY INDEX OF SPONSORS ADVANCED VENTURES IN TECHNOLOGY, INC. ................. 16 ALLEN EXTRUDERS .................... 32 AMERICAN CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGIES ....................... 28 ALTUGLAS INTERNATIONAL ....... 23 BROWN MACHINE ....................... 29 CMS NORTH AMERICA ................ 33 CMT MATERIALS, INC. ................. 32 EDWARD D. SEGEN & CO. .......... 30 FOXMOR GROUP ......................... 32 FUTURE MOLD CORP. ................. 33 GN PLASTICS ............................... 27 IRWIN RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT .......................... 6 JRM INTERNATIONAL .................... 5 KIEFEL TECHNOLOGY ................. 14 KYDEX .......................................... 36 LANXESS ...................................... 16 LYLE .............................................. 20 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY SOLVE COST & PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS Kleerdex Company, LLC  Over 40 specialized grades  Certified Fire Ratings: 6685 Low Street satisfy highest performance – UL Std. 94 V-0 and 5V Bloomsburg, PA 17815 USA – UL 746C for signage to lowest cost applications: Tel: 1.800.325.3133 – FAR 25.853(a) and (d) Fax: 1.800.452.0155 – Aircraft – Class 1/A E-mail: info@kleerdex.com – Mass transit – MVSS 302 – Building products www.kydex.com – ASTM E-662/E-162 – Weatherable – Conductive/ESD  Broad Color Selection: – Multi-purpose – 34 Standard colors – 2000+ Custom colors  10 Surface Textures – Granite patterns  Thickness from 0.028” to 0.500” – Fluorescent colors – Woodgrain patterns ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 CERTIFIED Thermoformers We build machines that build business Special Machines Clamshell Sealers Blister Sealers Laboratory Sealers Sencorp thermoformers deliver repeatable, quality production parts at high cycle speeds. Available options include closed loop thermal imaging sheet scanning, adjustable shut height, deep draw, quick changeover master tooling and robotic part removal systems. Sencorp thermoformers provide you with a competitive edge over your competition. 400 Kidds Hill Road—Hyannis, MA 02601—USA P: 508 -771-9400 F: 508-790-0002 E: sales@sencorp -inc.com www.sencorp-inc.com MAAC MACHINERY ........................ 1 McCLARIN PLASTICS................... 32 McCONNELL CO. .......................... 28 MODERN MACHINERY ................ 33 ONSRUD CUTTER ........................ 27 PLASTICS CONCEPTS ................. 28 PLASTIMACH ................................ 29 PORTAGE CASTING & MOLD, INC............................................. 28 PREMIER MATERIAL CONCEPTS. 28 PRIMEX PLASTICS ....................... 32 PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES .. 32 PRODUCTIVE PLASTICS, INC. .... 28 PRODUCTO CORPORATION ....... 32 PROFILE PLASTICS ..................... 28 RAY PRODUCTS, INC................... 33 RAYTEK ........................................ 26 ROBOTIC PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY .......................... 24 RTP ............................................... 29 SELECT PLASTICS....................... 33 SENCORP ..................................... 36 SOLAR PRODUCTS ..................... 33 STANDEX ENGRAVING GROUP .. 33 STOPOL INC. ................................ 23 TEMPCO ELECTRIC ....................... 8 THERMWOOD CORP.......Inside Back Cover TOOLING TECHNOLOGY, LLC ....... 8 TPS ............................................... 33 ULTRA-METRIC TOOL CO. ........... 30 WECO PRODUCTS ...................... 16 WELEX, INC. ................................. 20 XALOY .......................................... 32 ZED INDUSTRIES ......................... 32 Thermoforming QUARTERLY 36

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