Quarterly Mags: 2006 4th

Contents

Thermoforming

®

Q U A R T E R L Y

TECHNICAL SECTION

Lead Technical Article:

The Effect of Sheet Sag on Radiant Energy Transmission in Thermoforming ……….. 19

Industry Practice:

Determining the Effect of Corner Radius on Container Volume ………………………….. 25

Industry Practice:

Controlling the 3 M’s of Forming ……………………………………………………………………….28

Industry Practice:

Books for a Small Company Library…………………………………………………………………….30

Thermoforming 101:

The Rim …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32

Book Review:

Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process: A Systematic Approach to Solving Plastic
Extrusion Problems …………………………………………………………………………………………20

DIVISION ACTIVITIES

Chairman’s Corner …………………………………………………………Inside Front Cover
Membership ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
New Members …………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-4
CONFERENCE SECTION ………………………………………………………………………. 8-17
Winter Board Meeting Schedule …………………………………………………………… 18
Council Report ………………………………………………………………………………… 34-35
In Memoriam: Robert Kostur ………………………………………………………………… 40
Membership Application ……………………………………………………………………… 41
Index of Sponsors ………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Board of Directors List…………………………………………………….Inside Back Cover

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

A NOTE TO
PROSPECTIVE
AUTHORS

TFQ is an “equal opportunity”
publisher! You will note that we have
several categories of technical articles,
ranging from the super-high tech
(sometimes with equations!), to
industry practice articles, to book
reviews, how to articles, tutorial
articles, and so on. Got an article that
doesn’t seem to fit in these categories?
Send it to Barry Shepherd, Technical
Editor, anyway. He’ll fit it in! He
promises. [By the way, if you are
submitting an article, Barry would
appreciate it on CD-ROM in DOC
format. All graphs and photos should
be black and white and of sufficient
size and contrast to be scannable.
Thanks.]

Thermoforming

®

QUARTERLY

A JOURNAL PUBLISHED EACH CALENDAR

QUARTER BY THE THERMOFORMING DIVISION

OF THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS

Editor

Gwen Mathis

(706) 235-9298 • Fax (706) 295-4276
gmathis224@aol.com
Technical Editor

Barry Shepherd

Shepherd Thermoforming &
Packaging, Inc.
5 Abacus Road
Brampton, Ontario L6T 5B7
CANADA
(905) 459-4545 Ext. 229
Fax (905) 459-6746
bshep@shepherd.ca

Sponsorships

Laura Pichon

(815) 678-2131 Ext. 624
Fax (815) 678-4248
lpichon@extechplastics.com
Thermoforming Quarterly® is published four times annually
as an informational and educational bulletin
to the members of the Society of Plastics
Engineers, Thermoforming Division, and the
thermoforming industry. The name, “Thermoforming
Quarterly®” and its logotype, are registered trademarks
of the Thermoforming Division of the Society
of Plastics Engineers, Inc. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without prior written permission of the publisher,
copyright holder. Opinions of the authors are their
own, and the publishers cannot be held responsible
for opinions or representations of any unsolicited
material. Printed in the U.S.A.

Thermoforming Quarterly® is registered in the US
Patent and Trademark Office (Registration no.
2,229,747).

1
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

MEMBERSHIP

BY CONOR CARLIN, MEMBERSHIP CHAIRMAN

T
T
his year’s
conference in
Nashville was
another success
for SPE. As
expected during
an NPE year,
attendance was
down 9% from
our record year in Milwaukee. Still,
given the diversity of attendees, it
is clear that we are part of a global
industry. The conference provides
an opportunity for the Thermoforming
Division to review
membership numbers. Here are a
few statistics on our division that
might interest you:

•
Section D25 (Thermoforming)
is the third largest
primary division by
membership within SPE
National. Injection molding
and extrusion are the two
largest divisions, meaning
that thermoforming is
larger than automotive,
blow molding and rotational
molding.
•
There are eighty
geographic sub-divisions
represented in Section
D25. This includes the US,
Canada, Mexico, Europe,
South America, Asia and
Oceania.
•
The European
Thermoforming Division is
Section D43. As a member
of D25, you are eligible to
join D43 as a secondary
division when you register/
renew.
•
In the month leading up to
the conference, we had 67
new registrations/renewals.
That represents a 4.8%
increase in one month.
While we continue to build on our
successes, it is important to
remember that our division is like a
thermoforming machine: it must be
maintained and revitalized for
optimum performance. Education
and investment in “knowledge
capital” are two of the most critical
areas addressed by involvement in
the Thermoforming Division. For
the twelve months ending on June
30th, 2006, we allocated over
$175,000.00 to education.
Student scholarship programs,
ANTEC and equipment matching
grants are just a few of the areas
that benefited from the
organization’s ability to stay true to
its mission statement. As a nonprofit
organization, we reap our
real benefits in the form of new
ideas, companies and individuals
participating in our division.

On occasion, I will still hear
someone ask, “Why should I join
SPE?” Perhaps you have also
encountered this question. If so,
take a minute to enlighten your
colleague with some features and
benefits:

•
Access to industry
knowledge from one central
location:
www.thermoformingdivision.com
•
Subscription to
Thermoforming Quarterly,
voted “Publication of the
Year” by SPE National.
•
Exposure to new ideas and
trends from across the
globe. If you don’t think
your company is affected
by globalization, you need
to think again.
•
New and innovative part
design at the Parts
Competition.
•
Open dialogue with the
entire industry at the
annual conference.
•
Discounts, discounts,
discounts on books,
seminars and conferences.
•
For managers: workshops
and presentations tailored
specifically to the needs of
your operators.
•
For operators: workshops
and presentations that will
send you home with new
tools to improve your
performance, make your
job easier and help the
company’s bottom line.
As we near the end of another
calendar year, I’d like to make a
humble request of our loyal
members: for you and/or your
company to sponsor one other
person for membership in our
division. Think of a new hire, an
intern, an academic partner or
perhaps someone who has been
thinking about joining SPE. With
your help, we can grow our division
and reach new heights. It’s all
about adapting to form the future.

¦

Questions? Comments? Ideas?
Email me:

ccarlin@sencorp-inc.com

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 2

WELCOME, NEW MEMBERS!

Rick Albert – 258269 Thomas J. Byrne – 258561 John R. Farney – 255452 John T Kelly – 8290 Andrew R. Marinelli –
Brentwood Industries Inc Tower Components Inc Cumberland Engineering Kelly Consulting Group LLC 258264
621 Brentwood Drive 5960 Highway 64 East 322 Ridge View Trail 2126 Oakland Ridge Drive Universal Protective
Reading, PA 19611 Ramseur, NC 27316 Verona, WI 53593 Kalamazoo, MI 49008 Packaging Inc
61 Texaco Road
Syed Shabber Ali – 258296 Andrew Caldwell – 258563 Bryan O. Gaudet – 258732 Eric Kilbourn – 258167 Mechanicsburg, PA 17050
Parpak Ltd Bayer Material Science Alga Plastics Virginia Industrial Plastics
26 Victoria Cres 20823 Golden Kings Court 21 Amflex Drive 2454 N Eastside Hwy Donald L. McCalmon –
Brampton, ON L6T 1E5 Humble, TX 77346 Cranston, RI 02921 Elkton, VA 22827 258110
Canada Bayer Material Science
Armando C. Cauduro -Gustavo Gomes De Amorim Wynn Kintz – 19409 100 Bayer Road
Bernard Ampomah – 258094 258129 – 253353 Kintz Plastics Inc Building 8
2 Kendall Rd Braplas SA De C V PLM Plasticos SA 1 Caverns Rd Pittsburgh, PA 15205
East Brunswick, NJ 08816 Jose Maria Castorena No 324 Est Ver Julio Ferreira Filho Howes Cave, NY 12092
Loc 209 441 Christopher Morgera –
Eduardo Arechiga – 245948 Cuajimalpa De Morelos Campina Grande So Sul, Jens Klaus – 258690 258150
Grupo Brava Mexico DF 05000 Parana 83 430 000 Clear View Manufacturing Alga Plastics
Pirules 16D Complejo Brazil 6670 White Rd 21 Amflex Drive
Industrial Cuamatla Lawrence Chapoy – 66765 Riviera Beach, FL 33408 Cranston, RI 02921
Colfax, WI 54730 HPM Company Jon R. Greenawalt – 258275
Mexico 348 Ridge Rd Sonoco Products Company Ted Klimaszewski – 227520 David A. Myers – 258601
Barrington, IL 60010 1 North Second St Inline Plastics Corp International Liner
Dennis E Bahl – 49898 Hartsville, SC 29550 40 Seemans Lane PO Box 230
Innovative Plastech Inc Jose L. Chirino – 258300 Milford, CT 06460 Mount Braddock, PA 15465
1260 Kingsland Dr Bayer MaterialScience LLC Amit Gupta – 211130
Batavia, IL 60510 100 Bayer Road Basell Olyolefins Zach M. Klingbile – 258448 Jeremy Neilson – 258517
Building 8 912 Appleton Road Precision Plastics LLC Bose Corporation
Noelle Billon – 258070 Pittsburgh, PA 15205 Elkton, MD 21921 555 Bell Street the Mountain
EMP-CEMEF Suite 100 MS 460
BP 207 Roger Clarke – 258630 Greg R. Hammersley -Neenah, WI 54956 Framingham, MA 01701
Sophia, Antipolis FR-06904 Taylors HPM 257810 Ryan Klotz – 258334
France 820 Marion Rd Stiles Machinery Inc Roho Group Ken Neoh – 258465
Mount Gilead, OH 43338 729 Gallimore Dairy Rd 100 Florida Ave Azimuth Inc
Alan J Boardman – 69389 High Point, NC 27265 Belleville, IL 62221 1000 Technology Drive Ste
WL Gore & Associates Dennis H. Currie – 236181 3120
1500 North Fourth Street Precision Plastics Inc David P Hikes – 45816 Matthew S. Kortuem -Fairmont, WV 26554
Flagstaff, AZ 86003 1405 Warford St Tray-Pak Corporation 201865
Memphis, TN 38108 P O Box 14804 Brentwood Industries Jamie D. Nolasco – 258239
Charles Michael Bobula -Reading, PA 19611 621 Brentwood Dr Covalence Specialty
237448 Michael G. Daniels – 258352 Reading, PA 19611 Materials of Mexico
15751 Pinewood Dr Hunter Douglas Horizontal Michael Hoppes – 227561 8830 Siempre Viva Rd Ste 300
Strongsville, OH 44149 Blinds Brentwood Industries Eric Kronemeyer – 258379 San Diego, CA 92154
2 Park Way 621 Brentwood Drive Alpha Systems Inc
Rick Bontrager – 258459 Saddle River, NJ 07458 Reading, PA 19611 5120 Beck Drive Darwin Nothwehr – 65836
Packaging Plus Elkhart, IN 46516 Allied Plastics Inc
5650 Stewart Ave Greg Donovan – 232729 Peter Horodowich – 258116 150 Holy Hill Rd
Fremont, CA 94538 Alpha Systems Inc Productive Plastics Inc Mark Laue – 258244 Twin Lakes, WI 53181
5120 Becks Drive 103 West Park Drive Borke Mold Specialist Inc
Fritz Borke – 160022 Elkhart, IN 46516 Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 9541 Glades Drive Michael E. Nuby – 258153
Borke Mold Specialist Inc Hamilton, OH 45011 Southern California Edison
9541 Glades Drive Kelly J. Doyle – 258011 John Hunt – 56255 2244 Walnut Grove Ave
Hamilton, OH 45011 Brentwood Industries Plastic Art Products Benjamin Locke – 258131 Alta Loma, CA 91770
621 Brentwood Drive 1226 East 18th St Metabolix Company
Richard D Brashier – 57011 Reading, PA 19608 Greeley, CO 80631 21 Erie Street Brad Picard – 258151
Speck Plastics Inc Cambridge, MA 02139 Alga Plastics
P O Box 421 Martin Eichenberger -Jim Johnson – 248789 21 Amflex Drive
Nazareth, PA 18064 258132 Processing Technologies LLC Hernan Lopez – 258534 Cranston, RI 02921
Plasti Vac Inc 2655 White Oak Circle Dar Kolor SA De CV
Andrew T. Brunk – 258613 214 Dalton Ave Aurora, IL 60502 Carretera A Santa Ana Km 28 Mahesh Patkar – 59750
Inland Technologies PO Box 5543 1/2 AtoFina Petrochemicals Inc
1517 Ivac Way Charlotte, NC 28299 Robin L. Johnson – 168503 Parque Industrial El PO Box 1200
Creedmoor, NC 27522 Ameri-Kart Corporation Rinconcito Deer Park, TX 77536
Matthew M. Ellison – 258169 17196 State Road 120E La Libertad
Charles L. Butcher – 258133 Hexion Specialty Chemicals PO Box 368 El Salvador Patrick Pheffer – 258687
Plasti Vac Inc Inc Bristol, IN 46507-0368 Senoplast USA Inc
214 Dalton Ave 630 Glendale Milford Road Eric Ma – 247784 75 Executive Drive Ste 111
PO Box 5543 Cincinnati, OH 45215 Jennifer Kaye – 258146 Stinger Industries LLC Aurora, IL 60504
Charlotte, NC 28299 Plastic Package Inc 1152 Park Ave
Frankie Ellsberry – 258677 4600 Beloit Drive Murfreesboro, TN 37129
Mark D. Byrge – 251038 Madras Sacramento, CA 95838
Guardian Automotive 10000 17th Road
11530 Stephens Road Argos, IN 46501-9702
Warren, MI 48089 (continued on next page)

3
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

WELCOME, NEW MEMBERS!

Corey Pohlman – 258360

Modern Machinery of
Beaverton Inc
3031 Guernsey Rd
Beaverton, MI 48612

Neema Pourmohamadian 258147

Pactiv Corp
600 East Bunker Court
Vernon Hills, IL 60061

Robert Rebman – 103316

Precision Plastics LLC
555 Bell Street Suite 100
Neenah, WI 54596

Jeff Reed – 256921

City of Danville
P O Box 3300
Danville, VA 24543

Gerardo Ruano – 258533

Dar Kolor SA De CV
Carretera A Santa Ana Km 28
1/2
Parque Industrial El
Rinconcito
La Libertad
El Salvador

Ron Saggio – 258029

Southtech Plastics
3498 Martin Drive
New Bern, NC 28560

Bea Sallabi – 257658

Clear View Manufacturing
6670 White Dr
Riviera Beach, FL 33407

Diogo Saraiva – 258152

Fox Ridge Drive
Cranston, RI 02921

Viraj Saraiya – 258295

Parpak Ltd
26 Victoria Cres
Brampton, ON L6T 1E5
Canada

Eric J. Schmitz – 240704

Tooling Technology LLC
100 Enterprise Drive
Fort Loramie, OH 45845

Steve Schofield – 258281

Plastics Fabricating & Supply
Co
3571 South 300 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84115

Robert L. Schotsch – 76755

RLR Industries Inc
575 Discovery Place
Mableton, GA 30126

Joe Schulcz – 258513

4852 N Ridgeside Circle
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

(CONT’D.)

Madelaine Shultz – 258466

Azimuth Inc
1000 Technology Drive Ste
3120
Fairmont, WV 26554

Kent W. Seifert – 65697

Midwest Patterns Inc
4901 N 12Th St
Quincy, IL 62305
:

Alex Semeczko – 195346

6247 Valinda Avenue
Alta Loma, CA 91737

Matt Shiftley – 258061

Mullinix Packages Inc
3511 Engle Road
Fort Wayne, IN 46809-1117

Mike P. Sinnette – 207246

ThermoPro Inc
1600 Distribution Dr Ste D
Duluth, GA 30097

Richard S. Spoula – 258567

Anchor Packaging
2211 N 12th Ave
Paragould, AR 72450

John S. Sprinkle – 254452

Fabri-Form
8626 Roth Farm Lane
Alexandria, KY 41001

Violet Stefanovski – 226348

Visypak Food Plastics
42-44 Buckland St
Clayton, Victoria 3122
Australia

Christopher D. Stein 258173

Composite Design Studios
LLC
15 Lakewood Drive Unit 22
Oakdale, CT 06370

Joshua B. Sybrowsky 258501

Plastic Package
4600 Beloit Drive
Sacramento, CA 95838

Armon Tabrizi – 258462

170 College Dr
Platteville, WI 53818

Angel S. Taylor – 258241

Dow Chemical Company
433 Building
Midland, MI 48667

John E. Temple, Jr. – 192046

269 Farming Creek Way
Lexington, SC 29072

Sandy Thielen – 258547

Ingersoll Rand/Thermo King
Corporation
314 West 90th Street
Minneapolis, MN 55420-3693

Dale Thomas – 258333

Roho Group
100 N Florida
Belleville, IL 62221

Akash R. Tulsian – 240152

Placon Corporation
6096 McKee Road
Madison, WI 53719

German Valdez – 258541

Mullinix Packages Inc
3511 Engle Road
Fort Wayne, IN 46809

Bart Van Edom – 258476

Huntsman
Everslaan 45
Everberg BE-3078
Belgium

Paul T. Van Leeuwen 258293

CKF Inc
30 Iron Street
Rexdale, ON M9W 5E1
Canada

David C. Via – 258409

ViaConnexions Inc
PO Box 6554
Glen Allen, VA 23058

Keith Vorst – 258418

Cal Poly State University
Orfalea College of Business
Building 3 Room 405
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407

Max Warner – 65963

Plastics Fabricating & Supply
Co
3571 S 300 W
Salt Lake City, UT 84115

Michael Waski – 48048

444 Union St
Bedford, OH 44146
MEM

Christopher E. Weis 258694

1836 Tiffany Cove Lane SW
Rochester, MN 55902

Ken Wilken – 14147

Cedar Lake Sales Co
2410 Zircon Lane North
Minneapolis, MN 55447-2062

Michael P Witer – 37651

Brown Machine LLC
330 N Ross
Beaverton, MI 48612-0434

Tracy C. Wolf – 221198

Innovative Plastech Inc
1260 Kingsland Dr
Batavia, IL 60510

Philip Wong – 189405

Wing Mau Products
Development Ltd
Rm 3-5 17/F Wah Wai Centre
38-40 Au Pui Wan
Po Tan, New Territories
Hong Kong

Eric Wright – 258218

Fabri-Form Company
P O Box 90
New Concord, OH 437620090

WHY
JOIN?

It has never been more
important to be a member
of your professional society
than now, in the current
climate of change and
volatility in the plastics
industry. Now, more than
ever, the information you
access and the personal
networks you create can and
will directly impact your
future and your career.

Active membership
in SPE:

• keeps you current
• keeps you informed
• keeps you connected
The question really
isn’t “why join?” but …

WHY
NOT?

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 4

Need help
with your

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Save time and money on
your thermoform molds

When you use Alcoa 6013-T651 Power Plate™ aluminum
versus 6061, you’ll experience:

¦
30% to 45% higher CNC Speeds and Feeds
¦
Up to 75% less burrs
¦
Up to 15% improved “as machined” surface finish
¦
Higher strength and surface hardness
¦
Enhanced gun drilling and other deep hole machining
We will work with your machine shops so you can realize the
time and cost savings that will help you move ahead of the
competition.

technical school

or college

expenses?

I
I
f you or someone you
know is working towards
a career in the plastic
industry, let the SPE
Thermoforming Division
help support those education
goals.

Our mission is to facilitate
the advancement of
thermoforming technologies
through education, application,
promotion, and research.
Within this past year alone, our
organization has awarded
multiple scholarships! Get
involved and take advantage of
available support from your
plastic industry!

Start by completing the
application forms at
www.thermoformingdivision.com
or at www.4spe.com. The
deadline for applications is
January 15th, 2007. ¦

TK
Or contact John Perryman at (248) 233-5725,
e-mail: jperryman@tkmna.thyssenkrupp.com

6013-T651 Power Plate™ is distributed by:

ThyssenKrupp Materials NA

Copper and Brass Sales Division

A ThyssenKrupp Services company

ThyssenKrupp Materials NA, Inc. — AIN Plastics, Copper and Brass Sales, Ken-Mac Metals, TMX Aerospace,
ThyssenKrupp Steel Services, ThyssenKrupp Hearn, TKX Logistics

5
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR
CRITERIA FOR 2007

E
E
very year The SPE Thermoforming
Division selects a individual
who has made a outstanding
contribution to our industry and
awards them the Thermoformer of
the Year award.

The award in the past has gone
to industry pioneers like Bo Stratton
and Sam Shapiro, who were among
the first to found thermoforming
companies and develop our industry.
We have included machine designers
and builders Gaylord Brown
and Robert Butzko and toolmaker
John Greip, individuals who helped
develop the equipment and mold
ideas we all use today. We have
also honored engineers like Lew
Blanchard and Stephen Sweig, who
developed and patented new methods
of thermoforming. Additionally,
we have featured educators like Bill
McConnell, Jim Throne and
Herman R. Osmers, who have both
spread the word and were key figures
in founding the Thermoforming
Division.

We’re looking for more individuals
like these and we’re turning to
the Thermoforming community to
find them. Requirements would include
several of the following:

.Founder or Owner of a
Thermoforming Company
.Patents Developed
.Is currently active in or recently
retired from the Thermoforming
Industry
.Is a Processor – or capable of
processing
.Someone who developed new
markets for or started a new
trend or style of Thermoforming
.Significant contributions to the
work of the Thermoforming
Division Board of Directors
.Has made a significant educational
contribution to the
Thermoforming Industry.
If you would like to bring someone
who meets some or all of these
requirements to the attention of the
Thermoforming Division, please fill
out a nomination form and a oneto
two-page biography and forward
it to:

Thermoforming Division Awards

Committee

% Productive Plastics, Inc.

Hal Gilham

103 West Park Drive

Mt. Laurel, NJ 08045

Tel: 856-778-4300

Fax: 856-234-3310

Email:
halg@productiveplastics.com

You can also find the form and see all the past
winners at www.thermoformingdivision.com in
the Thermoformer of the Year section.

You can submit nominations and bios at any time
but please keep in mind our deadline for
submissions is no later than December 1st of
each year, so nominations received after that
time will go forward to the next year.

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 6

Thermoformers of the Year …

1982

William K. McConnell, Jr.
McConnell Company

1983

E. Bowman Stratton, Jr.
Auto-Vac Corp.
1984

Gaylord Brown, Brown Machine

1985

Robert L. Butzko

Thermtrol Corp.

1986

George Wiss, Plastofilm Industries

1987

Dr. Herman R. Osmers

Educator & Consultant

1988

Robert Kittridge
Fabri-Kal Corporation

1989

Jack Pregont, Prent Corporation

1990

Ripley W. Gage, Gage Industries

1991

Stanley Rosen
Mold Systems Corp.

1992

Samuel Shapiro
Maryland Cup
Sweetheart Plastics

1993

John Grundy, Profile Plastics

1994

R. Lewis Blanchard
Dow Chemical
1995

James L. Blin, Triangle Plastics

1996

John Griep
Portage Casting & Mold

1997

John S. Hopple, Hopple Plastics

1998

Lyle Shuert, Shuert Industries

1999

Art Buckel, McConnell Company

2000

Dr. James Throne
Sherwood Technologies

2001

Joseph Pregont, Prent Corp.

2002

Stephen Sweig, Profile Plastics

2003

William Benjamin
Benjamin Mfg.

2004

Steve Hasselbach, CMI Plastics

2005

Manfred Jacob
Jacob Kunststofftechnik

2006

Paul Alongi, MAAC Machinery

THERMOFORMER OF
THE YEAR 2007

Presented at the September 2007 Thermoforming Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio

The Awards Committee is now accepting nominations for the 2007
THERMOFORMER OF THE YEAR. Please help us by identifying worthy candidates.
This prestigious honor will be awarded to a member of our industry that has made
a significant contribution to the Thermoforming Industry in a Technical, Educational,
or Management aspect of Thermoforming. Nominees will be evaluated
and voted on by the Thermoforming Board of Directors at the Winter 2007 meeting.
The deadline for submitting nominations is December 1st, 2006. Please complete
the form below and include all biographical information.

Person Nominated: _______________________________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Street Address: _____________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Telephone: _________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Biographical Information:

•
Nominee’s Experience in the Thermoforming Industry.
•
Nominee’s Education (include degrees, year granted, name and location of
university)
•
Prior corporate or academic affiliations (include company and/or institutions,
title, and approximate dates of affiliations)
•
Professional society affiliations
•
Professional honors and awards.
•
Publications and patents (please attach list).
•
Evaluation of the effect of this individual’s achievement on technology and
progress of the plastics industry. (To support nomination, attach substantial
documentation of these achievements.)
•
Other significant accomplishments in the field of plastics.
•
Professional achievements in plastics (summarize specific achievements upon
which this nomination is based on a separate sheet).
Individual Submitting Nomination: _______________________ Title: _____________________
Firm or Institution: _________________________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________ City, State, Zip: ________________________
Phone: ____________________ Fax: _________________________ E-mail: _________________

Signature: ______________________________________ Date: ____________________
(ALL NOMINATIONS MUST BE SIGNED)

Please submit all nominations to: Hal Gilham,
Productive Plastics, 103 West Park Drive
Mt. Laurel, New Jersey 08045

7
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2006 THERMOFORMING PARTS COM

A
A
major highlight of the Thermoforming Conference
is the Parts Competition and Showcase. The
competition’s panel of judges – six industry professionals
from the cut-sheet and roll-fed industries – selected winners
based on criteria that included technical mastery,
creativity, surface finish, market viability, originality,
material difficulty, mold complexity, and secondary operations.
The People’s Choice Award goes to the entry
receiving the greatest number of votes cast by Conference
attendees and exhibitors. This year the Conference
sponsored a new category – Parts Submitted by Universities
– to solicit input from schools that offer classes in
thermoforming. Following is a description of the awardwinning
parts, listed according to competition category:

People’s Choice Award – Commercial Vehicle Facia

The winner of the
People’s Choice Award and
the Automotive Award – the
Hendrickson Aero Bright
(HAB) bumper for the
freightliner Columbia – utilizes
a three-piece design
that allows for replacement
of damaged individual components rather than the entire
bumper, reducing the service cost to the end user.
The center section is draw-formed steel chrome that provides
impact protection to the vehicle’s front end, radiator,
and other components. Made from Solvay Engineered
Polymers’ Sequel E3000 TPO, and laminated with Soliant
LLC’s “Bright Film,” the endcaps are attached to the
bumper’s center section with brackets, mechanical fasteners,
and double-sided VHB tape. Hendrickson Bumper
and Trim says that the task of creating the thick-sheet
thermoformed endcaps was challenging, made more difficult
by the use of TPO and the requirement for a durable
Class A mirror finish. The thick-sheet pressure
forming was provided by Profile Plastics and the tooling
by Portage Casting and Mold.

Hendrickson Bumper and Trim; 815.727.4031;
www.hendrickson-intl.com

Cut-Sheet Competition

Consumer Product Award

The Soccerwave is a
unique and original tool intended
for use by soccer
players and their coaches to
teach ball control. It was required
that the device be
durable, portable, and watertight,
and provide a one-year
warranty against manufacturer
defects. When players kick the ball toward the ramp,
the ball should encounter zero resistance while traveling
onto and through a full sweep at any angle of approach.
The Soccerwave features reinforced knitting along the

back panel that is partially fused to the front face, to prevent
it or the play surface from “pillowing out” when
filled with water and to maintain a smooth surface for
ball travel. The knitting must be exceptionally strong
along the perimeter of the wave, where the two tools meet.
Two separate sheets of 1/4-inch HMWPE, supplied by
Extrusion Technologies, were used to form the part. The
front lip of the Soccerwave is a near knife edge, and the
1/2-inch material was compressed to about 1/8-inch
pinch. The close-tolerance front edge prevents the ball
from jumping as it enters and rolls up the soccer wave.
The vacuum-forming twin-sheet method allows for additional
strength and leakproof seams, and the use of articulating
tooling provides excellent material distribution.
Peninsula Plastics designed and built the tooling to make
it applicable to the vacuum-forming twin-sheet process.

Peninsula Plastics Co., Inc.; 248.293.6509;
www.peninsulaplastics.com

Twin Sheet Product Award

The award-winning surgical helmet,
for use by doctors to enhance
their ability to see during surgical
procedures, was twin-sheet
thermoformed on a high-speed
rotary press. The single-oven twinsheet
process was used. Creation
of very sharp detail using core-pull
needles with 80 psi of internal air
pressure was achieved, and strong twin-sheet welds with
thin-gauge sheet on a rotary press were attained. Multilevel
parting lines presented further challenges. Spartech
Plastics supplied the polypropylene material in 0.045-inch
and 0.065-inch gauges. As a result of requirements for
softness and flexibility, and the part’s zero draft areas, it
was exceptionally difficult to demold without damage.
The helmet is CNC trimmed to ±0.010 inch, and fixturing
from the opposite side created numerous challenges. Tooling
was designed and built by Associated Thermoforming.

Associated Thermoforming, Inc.; 970.532.2000;
www.thermoforms.com

Multipart Assembly Award

The winner of the Multipart
Assembly Award
features seven pressureformed
parts that enclose
a multiplexing microarray
processor used for
genomics and proteomics
testing. The sweeping
curve of the design is a
key visual element, along with the crisp appearance of
the pressure-formed panels and the concealment of visible
fasteners. The industrial design demanded an aesthetically
appealing and functional enclosure. Operation
of the unit requires frequent lifting of the front panel by

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 8

PETITION AND SHOWCASE WINNERS

an automated hydraulic mechanism and opening of the
side panel doors by the operator. To achieve accuracy of
assembly and realignment after opening, the components
incorporate a formed-in undercut design, with tooled
double-tiered steps locating the adjacent single-tiered step
to the mating part. Mating lines of the multiple parts intersect
in nine locations. Kleerdex Co. supplied the Kydex
T acrylic/PVC from which the enclosure components were
made. For the two-tone color scheme, each component
uses one of the colors in custom-color material.
Protogenesis, Inc. constructed the tools, which were later
and separately textured (MT 11030) by Mold Tech.

Specialty Manufacturing, Inc.; 858.450.1591;
www.smi-mfg.com

Electronic Enclosure Award

Freetech Plastics, Inc.
partnered with Hoya ConBio to
manage the exterior design and
the manufacture of exterior
plastic panels for the Hoya
ConBio VersaWave dental laser
program, winner of the Electronic
Enclosure Award.
Freetech says the challenges encountered
in development of the VersaWave included the
creation of an attractive look for a highly functional laser

– without making any changes to the existing platform.
Actuated molds were used to form dramatic undercut features
and reduce the number of mold cavities. End-user
requirements necessitated the incorporation of painted
and unpainted surfaces, so texturized tools were used
where needed. Freetech also incorporated attachment
systems and coatings to obtain the required EMI shielding
and make assembly easier. Airflow was maximized by
the addition of louvers to the side panels. Industrial design
was provided by Stirling Design, and the material is
Spartech Plastics’ R59 in a custom color.
Freetech Plastics, Inc.; 510.651.9996;
www.freetechplastics.com

Industrial Application Award

The battery cell processing
tray, winner of the Industrial
Application Award, was designed
and built by Associated
Thermoforming. The
tray is used in the battery industry
to hold battery cells as
they are run through an oven
prior to assembly. As it hangs
supported from each end in a 160°F oven for a period of
20 hours, the tray must bear the weight of the cells (180
lbs.) with less than 0.125-inch deflection. Made from CE
1820 ABS/polycarbonate blend in 0.125-inch and 0.187

inch gauges supplied by Spartech Plastics, the tray is
formed by precise heating of both sheets using infrared
line scanners that ensure uniform heat within 5 degrees
F across the sheets. Sharp detail is achieved with internal
core pull needles with 60 psi of air. Two steel ribs are insert
molded into each part and are fully encapsulated into
the part. Strategic weld points throughout the part also
aid in achieving the necessary stiffness.

Associated Thermoforming, Inc.; 970.532.2000;
www.thermoforms.com

Point-of-Purchase Award

The point-of-purchase display for the
“Scarecrow,” an automatic outdoor animal-
deterrent device, was designed and
manufactured by CSL Plastics. The Scarecrow,
equipped with a motion-activated
sprinkler, releases a burst of water intended
to startle and scare away an unwelcome
animal near a garden or
fishpond. The point-of-purchase display
for the Scarecrow demonstrates its function
– within a watertight case – allowing
the consumer to view a working demonstration
of the product in an indoor retail
setting. As the customer walks past the display, the
motion detector is activated, triggering the sprinkler to
spray water against the inner wall of the display. The
sound and sight of the display attracts the customer’s attention
and demonstrates the Scarecrow’s function. The
twin-sheet forming process uses two simultaneous
vacuum or pressure-forming operations to force two plastic
sheets against the side of a mold, resulting in a twinwalled
part with a central airspace. CSL engineers designed
a plug-assist tool that allows a thinner gauge material
(clear acrylic supplied by Cyro Industries) to be used without
sacrificing the quality or durability of the display.
Total Industries International made the tools.

CSL Plastics, Inc.; 604.888.2008;
www.cslplastics.com

Recreational Product Award

Louis Garneau Sports designed
the high-performance, ultra-light
Titan Carbon cycling helmet that
was worn by the Bouygues Telecom
team in the 2006 Tour de France.
The helmet’s “Titanium Ringlock,”
a very stiff and lightweight titanium
frame ring, prevents the helmet from bursting upon
impact, and the carbon V-shaped frame reinforces the
helmet’s bridges. Made from 0.06-inch polycarbonate,
Makrolon GP from Sheffield Plastics, the Titan Carbon

(continued on next page)

9
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2006 THERMOFORMING PARTS COM

helmet contains three thermoformed parts: two of polycarbonate
and one of carbon fiber. The plastic sheet is
screen printed with several colors before forming. Accurate
print-screen registration and thermoforming are
therefore essential to ensure the precise position of the
drawing on the helmet. Since there are a number of colors
on the sheet, the oven temperature must be precisely
controlled; in fact, radiation absorption on the sheet varies
with color. A high-quality plastic with no stress is important
in ensuring accurate control of the thickness and
the position of the drawing. Because of the helmet’s numerous
undercut angles, the thermoforming molds, made
by Les Moules Samco, Inc., are constructed with two
movable cam inserts to enable the demolding of the plastic
shell. The plastic is cut with a five-axis CNC machine
and the tool path is made using a digitizing arm. The
forming and cutting processes must be precise because
the form part is inserted into an injection mold in order
to bond it to the expanded polystyrene. Quality of the
plastic shell is a key factor in the film insert process.

Louis Garneau Sports; 418.878.4135;
www.louisgarneau.com

Roll-Fed Parts Competition

Consumer Packaging Award

PWP Industries’ Tamper-Evident
thermoformed packages
offer a convenient way to assure
the consumer that package
contents have not been tampered
with prior to purchase or
consumption. Additionally, the

packaging products include unique leak-resistant,
resealable features that help retain product freshness. The
packages can be designed using translucent materials that
are ideal for deli, produce, confectionery, and bakery
goods applications and for industrial applications.
Tamper-Evident packages can be made from a variety of
rigid materials, including PET, PP, PLA, CPET, and OPS,
and can be formed into various shapes and sizes through
the roll-fed thermoforming process. Roll-fed thermoforming
offers consistent forming and trimming of plastic
products by conventional aluminum production tools,
foam plugs, and steel-trim dies. The packages do not require
the use of ultrasonic/RF welding or UV-activated
adhesive processes, and shrink bands or adhesive labels
are unnecessary. No new capital equipment is required,
new-product time-to-market is reduced, and material and
labor costs are minimized. Packages displayed at the
Thermoforming Conference were made of PET supplied
by Commodity Supplies and PLA by NatureWorks; the
toolmaker/designer was PWP Industries.

PWP Industries; 323.513.9000;
www.pwpindstries.com

Medical Packaging Award

The Enpath Universal Catheter Tray accommodates any
of three catheters with diameters ranging from 3 to 20
french and lengths up to approximately 40 inches. Designed
by Mark Ralph of the Prent Corp., the package
eliminates the need for expensive tooling, parts, and inventory
that would be required for the packaging of three
different products. Because of the fragile nature of the
product, retainers and plastic tubes are traditionally used
to package catheters. The award-winning package utilizes
design elements to secure the product, thus eliminating
the need for additional package parts. Die-cut flaps fold
over to securely hold and prevent damage to the varied
catheter diameters. Each tray is enclosed in a pouch that
serves as a protective shipper. Primex Plastics Corp. supplied
the material (0.035-inch white high-impact polystyrene),
and tooling was designed and built by Prent
Corp.
Prent Corp.; 608.754.0276; www.prent.com

Electronic Packaging Award

Plastic Ingenuity, in conjunction with
Rod Borst, developed the tooling and the
machine that produces parts for the Inward
Flange Tray, a package designed to preserve
the integrity of devices used in the electronic
communications industry. The
package currently houses an array of Nokia
cellular phone models, locking them in an
unconventional closure system to provide
a “cocoon” of protection and security. The
Inward Flange Tray features smooth, gently rounded
flanges in contrast to the sharp, abrupt edges of conventional
packaging. The retail-goods package may serve as
a post-purchase storage container for the cellular phone
itself or for an assortment of other items. Utilizing a
unique process, Plastic Ingenuity achieved a vertical flange
that is trimmed inside the outermost formed features of
the tray. HIPS, PVC, HDPE, and PET are used in making
the tray.
Plastic Ingenuity, Inc.; 608.798.3071;
www.plasticingenuity.com

Food Container Award

EDV Packaging designed
the high-transparency container
for fruit and cream
desserts for babies. The PP/
EVOH/PP material (1.6 µm in
thickness) is coextruded and
thermoformed in the
company’s production plant

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 10

PETITION AND SHOWCASE WINNERS

in Barcelona, Spain. The consumer-friendly container is
recyclable, impact-resistant, puncture-resistant, easy to
transport and open, and eye-catching. For vertical stability,
the cup features a base with rounded crown, and the
interior walls are completely smooth for content accessibility.
The cup has a mouth diameter of 80 mm, brimful
capacity of 140 cc, and depth of 50 mm. The EVOH layer
serves as a barrier to UV rays, oxygen, and moisture, and
an additive in the external PP layer provides antistatic
properties. The barrier structure allows hot filling and
withstands thermal treatments. The cup can be heated in
a microwave oven or in a double boiler. Under optimal
conditions, the containers can be stored for up to 12
months.

EDV Packaging; +34 938 427 000;
www.edvpackaging.com

Industrial Packaging Award

A water and sound-deadening
shield for car-door assembly,
manufactured
using the inline thermoforming
process, won the
Industrial Packaging Award.
Production tooling, designed
by Amros Industries
and built by Amros and Waugs, Inc., consists of a watercooled
aluminum mold and temperature-controlled plug
assist. The need to simultaneously form and bond two
materials – polyester fiber and polyethylene foam – presented
the foremost challenge in manufacturing this product.
During the forming process, the two layers of
materials are preheated to different temperatures and
formed into dissimilar profiles on the top and bottom
layers. Part functionality depends on achieving a permanent
bond between materials.

Amros Industries, Inc.; 216.433.0010;
www.clamshellusa.com

Most Challenging Roll-Fed Application Award

Many types of assay procedures
help scientists isolate
specific components of a solution
(such as an antibody or
a virus) contained in a mixture
of components. DNA
assays, for example, quantitatively
measure amounts of
DNA, RNA, or proteins in a given test mixture. Assays are
usually tested using microgram-level solutions. The
assay trays holding the solutions are critical for successful
completion of any testing performed. The 96-well polycarbonate
assay trays, designed and manufactured by
Perfecseal Mankato, called for critically formed, draw
ratio “challenged” cavities in close proximity. The wells
had stringent minimum thickness requirements with no
surface flaws and had to withstand several high-tempera

ture cycles. The use of polycarbonate necessitated custom
tooling and processing, as additional drying was
needed because of the material’s sensitivity to moisture.
Perfecseal Mankato fabricated the custom tooling to accommodate
the heated molds, and fabricated plug-assist
material from an engineered polymer that was chosen
for the polycarbonate manufacturing process. Perfecseal
performs quality inspections to ensure flawless, pinholefree
trays that prevent loss of any assay tests.

Perfecseal, Inc.; 920.303.7100;
www.perfecseal.com

Best International Entry Award

The cell-culture microarray,
manufactured by
Forschungszentrum
Karlsruhe GmbH (Institute
for Biological Interfaces and
Institute of Microstructure
Technology), is reported to be
the first thermoformed
micropart to be introduced. Constructed on a flexiblefilm
microchip, the cell-culture microarray enables threedimensional
cell cultivation for fundamental (e.g. stem
cell) research, clinical research and therapy (organ support
systems), medical diagnosis, and pharmaceutical and
active substance research (toxicity and effectiveness tests).
The 10 x 10 mm microarray supports 625 microcontainers
arranged in a 25-row configuration. Each container is approximately
300 µm in diameter and in depth, with a
5-µm minimum bottom-wall thickness and 3-µm pores
in the walls. The arrays are fabricated from Pokalon 50µm
gauge polycarbonate from Lofo High Tech Film
GmbH, using a combination of microscale-adapted
trapped sheet thermoforming and ion track technology.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Institute for
Microprocess Engineering) built the tooling.

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH; +49 7247 82
4439 and 4496; www.fzk.de

Parts Submitted by Universities

Best Overall Process Utilizing Plug-Assist
and CNC Trimming

Students enrolled in a productdesign
class instructed by Dr. Lou
Reifschneider at Illinois State
University (ISU) designed the
award winner, the “ISU Straight
Dealer,” and developed the mold
and trimming tooling using resources
of the school’s Department of Technology. Recognized
for its complexity of tooling and forming, the
part is a cut-sheet formed tray that neatly holds pick-up
and discard cards during games that require stacks of cards,

e.g. rummy and Uno. The Straight Dealer is designed to
(continued on next page)

11
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming QUARTERLY 12
2006 THERMOFORMING PARTS
COMPETITION AND SHOWCASE WINNERS
facilitate dropping cards into the stacks and picking up
cards easily. It maintains proper card alignment so that
discarded cards below the top card cannot be seen. The
three-dimensional product design and corresponding
pattern were rendered in CAD. The pattern was created
with a rapid-prototype machine and was cast at the school
foundry to create the mold. The mold and a required trimming
fixture were designed and built by students in the
Department of Technology’s Integrated Manufacturing Sequence.
The Straight Dealer was produced using 0.125-
inch ABS on the school’s MAAC ASP industry-scaled
forming machine obtained through a grant from the
Thermoforming Division for use in plastics processing and
product-design courses. Because of the geometry of the
product, web assist was used during forming, and the part
was trimmed by CNC using a vacuum fixture. All steps
required to make the Straight Dealer were similar to those
used in industry.
Dr. Reifschneider, Department of Technology,
Illinois State University; 309.438.2621;
www.tec.ilstu.edu
Best Artistic Design Award
A birdhouse made from 1/16-inch
polystyrene and vacuum-formed from a
wooden mold features an entrance that
also serves as a drain hole and a hole at
the apex for hanging. Rather than constructing
a typical box-shaped avian
abode, Jason Liu, a student at San Jose
State University, sought to create a work
of art symbolizing the grace of a bird’s
flight and evoking a sense of relaxed inspiration,
such as that of autumn leaves,
stirred by a gentle breeze, drifting on currents
of air. Using a lathe, the designer
formed a wooden sphere, cut it into
shapes of various angles, and positioned
and assembled the pieces into an imaginative
pattern. When the two-dimensional
cutouts were vacuum-formed and
glued together, the result was a three-dimensional
structure that confers the sensation
of a graceful downward floating
movement. The cocoon-like, rounded
edges of the sphere’s form promote a
sense of rest.
Jason Liu, San Jose State University;
408.924.1000; www.sjsu.edu
Best Assembly Award
This award was presented to Cassie
Tweed, a second-year student enrolled in
the industrial design program at San Jose
State University. The goal was to explore
form through a number of processes and
materials. The assignment was to create a
tabletop flower vase of interesting composition
by resolving relationships between
positive and negative surfaces, two-dimensional
and three-dimensional volumes, and details. Additionally,
the project focused on two processes: using a
wood lathe to create molds and a thermoformer to pull
white styrene (supplied by GE Polymershapes) over them,
and using an APM Frugal Elite 2424 single-heat, singleplaten
thermoformer obtained through a grant from the
SPE Foundation, Thermoforming Division. The concept
of the molded two-dimensional pieces and how they
would relate to the overall three-dimensional design was
important to the project because it necessitated understanding
of a harmonious interaction between two- and
three-dimensional volumes and how the two formed
pieces would be joined during the production process.
Rather than approach the project from a conventional
perspective by joining two positive volumes together to
create the overall form, the designer chose to combine
one positive and one negative volume to craft a form
that made use of both. This approach resulted in a design
that was not only innovative to the history of this project,
but also solved the problem of how the two forms – negative
and positive, two-dimensional and three-dimensional
– would be joined.
Cassie Tweed, San Jose State University;
408.924.1000; www.sjsu.edu
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These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY

RICH FREEMAN RECEIVES LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD

R
R
ichard Freeman has been involved in
Thermoforming for over 35 years, the last 30
with Freetech Plastics in Fremont, California. His
experience providing pressure-formed products in
the close tolerance, technically demanding, and
highly competitive environment of Silicon Valley has
led to a number of key innovations. It also gives him
a unique perspective on Production, Quality,
Marketing, and Design Issues.

Rich’s articles, company and products have been
featured in Plastics Engineering, Appliance
Manufacturer, Innovation, Machine Design, Plastic News,
Mechanical Engineering, and International Designer to
name a few. He has spoken out about many issues
important to thermoformers over the years.
Considered one of the founders of the West Coast
style of thermoforming, he’s been a regular feature
of the SPE Thermoforming Division conference
programs, both in the USA and in Europe, as well as
other SPE and industrial design forums. His continual
promotional efforts in behalf of the industry have
benefited not just his own company but the
thermoforming industry as a whole. Rich has spoken
at numerous SPE thermoforming conferences and
has had a major influence on almost every heavy
gauge program since the conference’s inception.

Freetech Products has won numerous industry
awards including the 1996, 1999, and 2004 People’s
Choice Awards, the Thermoforming Industry’s top
prize. Freetech has provided the pressure-formed
parts for 7 ID Magazine award winners and has
worked hard to make the design community aware
of thermoforming possibilities. Since 1998 he has
both spoken at and put on many exhibitions on
behalf of the Thermoforming Division at IDSA
conferences to raise awareness of our industries’
many capabilities

Rich’s first thermoforming project at 8 years of age
was a draped formed acrylic candy dish for his Mom.
It was the first, but not last, time he burned off his
fingerprints on hot sheet.

Rich started Freetech Plastics in 1976. Their first
thermoformed product was polycarbonate voice coil
protectors for early hard disk drive components for
IBM.

Not happy with the quality of the cast tooling
then available needing to provide high detail parts
for Silicon Valley but not having pressure forming
equipment, Rich saw possibilities of combining CAD-
CAM and thermoforming. He then developed a a

Walt Walker, Chair of the Thermoforming Division, is shown
presenting the 2006 Lifetime Achievement Award to Rich Free-
man.

tooling method for achieving high definition parts
without the use of pressure. With CNC trimming,
Freetech could produce parts with very close
tolerances, machined components, and other
features not usually associated with thermoforming.
This led to what’s known as the West Coast style of
pressure forming. This method utilizes dramatic
shapes, sharp detail and extreme undercuts to create
a whole new look for thermoformed products. As
more modern equipment became available this only
got better.

Rich first got involved in Thermoforming Division
activities when Bill McConnell challenged him to
do something about improving our industry’s quality
image. This led to a speech at 1988 ANTEC entitled
“It’s Time For a New Era of Quality in Thermoforming.”

Rich has been an active member of the SPE
Thermoforming Division Board of Directors since
1991. He currently is responsible for the
Thermoforming Division’s web page and Machinery
Grant program. As a member of the Division’s good
works committee, he developed the Thermoforming
Machinery Matching Grant Program which has
placed thermoforming machines and other related
equipment in 14 schools so far.

All told Rich has worked hard to move
thermoforming and our division ahead. Fellow SPE
board member Haydn Forward said it best when he
declared: “Rich forced us all to get better.” ¦

13
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2006 NASHVILLE CONFERENCE REVIEW

PRINTED WITH PERMISSION FROM ALICE BLANCO, SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR, PLASTICS ENGINEERING

T
T
he 16th Annual SPE
Thermoforming Conference,
sponsored by the SPE Thermoforming
Division, took place at the
Nashville Convention Center in
Nashville, Tennessee, September
17th – 20th. Highlighting the important
role of “Creativity & Innovation
in Thermoforming,” the
Conference included exhibits representing
more than 90 companies
that provide products and services
to the thermoforming industry
worldwide. Nine hundred attendees
registered for the event, which
included workshops, an outstanding
technical program, and the
Parts Competition and Showcase.

Do You Enjoy Your Job?

“… Then tell your face!” advised
plenary speaker Dr. Dale Henry,
who introduced himself as being
“from the South, where gravy is a
beverage.” His formula for success:
“The value you bring to your
company, to this organization, has
nothing to do with a price tag; it
has to do with what you do for
everybody else. Drive the road less
traveled – that road of service. It’s
very simple. Just be you. Smile at
people.”

Dr. Henry accurately assessed
his smiling audience of
thermoformers as “a group of
people who study reactions and
the way things work together.” “If
you want to learn something,” he
said, “hang out with people who
have experience.” This Conference
was the place to do just that. As Art
Buckel counseled, “Bring your production
people to this Conference
and have them share when they
get back.”

Creativity and Innovation:
A Global View

Going Global?

“We’re already there,” said
speaker Jay Waddell of Plastics
Concepts and Innovations in his
presentation titled “Thermoforming:
Where Are We? Where Are We
Going? Is Our Future Global?” Mr.
Waddell believes “Globalization is
our future … we must understand
the world we live in … we have to
be the best there is.”

The place of the U.S. in the global
economy is starting to change
and as a result, the resin markets
are starting to change, said Phil
Karig of Spartech Corp. in his presentation
titled “Global View of the
Resin Market.” North America’s
advantage of abundant and inexpensive
natural gas as feedstock
and as fuel for electric power generation
has been lost, and events
outside the U.S. are increasingly
affecting resin pricing. North
America is being drawn into the
way the rest of the world is operating,
he said, into the spot, or cash,
market.

About 20% of the world’s total
GDP is currently represented by a
mature U.S. market, while markets
in Brazil, Russia, India, and China,
which now account for 25% of the
world GDP, are expanding at approximately
5%/yr. Before the Industrial
Revolution, China and
India accounted for nearly 50% of
world GDP. “In a lot of ways, what
we are seeing now is that … it’s
likely that we are starting to move
back to a world that looks very
much like it did before the Industrial
Revolution,” said Mr. Karig,
with China and India command

ing major roles in the world
economy. “The bottom line is that
looking at resin markets on a global
basis isn’t just an academic exercise
anymore.”

“China and India are emerging
as major centers for thermoforming,”
said Jay Waddell. “Those
guys are running.”

Demand For Resin

As for demand for resin, Asia,
especially China, with its immense
population, is where all the action
is taking place, Mr. Karig said. For
now, most of the products produced
in China are exported to the

U.S. and Europe. “That is what is
starting to shift. Things are starting
to move to more internal consumption
in China.”
Like China, India is home to
more than 1 billion people. Unlike
China, India has the advantage of
a legal system based on English
Common Law, an important plus
to U.S. companies seeking to conduct
business there. And countless
companies in India need plastic
parts. With an aspiring middle
class made up of 300 million potential
consumers, it is a huge marketplace,
full of opportunities, yet
fraught with caveats. A Conference
workshop titled “How To Do Business
in India,” led by Kumkum
Dalal, outlined in detail the incentives
and the challenges.

Seeking a Competitive Edge

One approach for companies
seeking to attain and maintain a
competitive edge in a global
economy is to update to the latest
technology, to run top-quality machines.
“Old machines without

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 14

proper heat and control systems
hurt competitiveness and profit,”
said Art Buckel in his presentation,
“Survival of the Strongest.”

“Thermoforming Trends in Europe,”
presented by Hubert
Kittelmann of Marbach Tool &
Equipment, reiterated Mr. Buckel’s
recommendation. Mr. Kittelmann
focused on machines and equipment
built for the packaging industry
in Europe – where energy costs
are triple those in the U.S., taxes are
high, and environmental regulations
are rigorous. Parts and products
are growing smaller (e.g.,
more convenient single-serve-size
packages), he said, while the machines
to make them are becoming
larger, faster, and more technologically
advanced.

Furthermore, said Jay Waddell,
it is critical to develop better training
systems for engineers and
plant employees. “If they don’t
know what they are doing with the
equipment … if they don’t know
what they are doing with the process,
with the materials, then how
are they going to control the processes?”

“Bio” to the Rescue?

Will bio-based plastic materials
help solve the industry’s energysupply
and energy-cost problems,
while promoting a cleaner environment?
Can businesses dedicated
to biotechnology produce
products embraced by consumers?
Can those companies turn a profit?
An afternoon of Conference sessions
titled “Bio and Sustainable
Resins in Thermoforming” was
devoted to exploring the possibilities
and the progress.

Daniel Gilliland of Metabolix,
Inc., addressed those quandaries in
his presentation, “PHA Plastics: A
Disruptive Technology for a Sus

tainable Future.” His company, in
a joint venture with Archer Daniels
Midland, is currently demonstrating
applications – on conventional
thermoforming equipment – with
key customers for market trials
through 2007. The joint sales company
is establishing supply agreements
for full commercial
production of fermentation-based
plastics, made from domestic agricultural
sugars and oils, to begin
in 2008 in a 50,000-tpa plant in
Clinton, Iowa.

According to Frederic Scheer of
Cereplast, Inc., in his presentation
titled “Displacing Petroleum Plastics
With Bio-based Resins,” consumers,
some U.S. government
agencies, packagers of food products,
brand owners, and retailers
and restaurants are requesting, if
not demanding, renewable plastic
products.

Much more information on biobased
plastics will be forthcoming
at SPE’s Global Plastics Environmental
Conference, scheduled for
March 6th – 7th, 2007 in Orlando,
Florida.

Awards, Scholarships, and
Grants

Paul V. Alongi was honored as
Thermoformer of the Year. In his
first job as a power-transmission
specialist, Mr. Alongi provided
engineering and product-selection
services to a manufacturer of
thermoforming equipment and
was thus introduced to the industry.
In 1982, he established Maac
Machinery Co., a major manufacturer
of cut-sheet thermoforming
equipment. Mr. Alongi has been
very supportive of the SPE
Thermoforming Division through
his numerous fundraising endeavors
for the Division’s scholarship
fund and has worked to advance

the thermoforming industry’s
technology through education,
application, promotion, and research.

Richard Freeman was named
recipient of the Division’s Lifetime
Achievement Award, and the Outstanding
Achievement Award, presented
by the Thermoforming
Board, went to Roger Fox of the
Foxmor Group. Bob Porsche of
General Plastics received the
Board’s Outstanding Member
Award.

The Segen Memorial Scholarship,
in the amount of $5,000, was
presented to Lucas Stallbaumer, a
graduate student in plastics engineering
technology at Pittsburg
State University, Kansas. Kim
Acinger, a senior majoring in plastics
engineering technology at
Pittsburg State, won the Griep
Memorial Scholarship in the
amount of $5,000.

Paul Bertsch Memorial Scholarships,
in the amount of $5,000 each,
were awarded to four students:
Kurtis Shultz, a senior at Western
Washington University, working
toward a degree in plastics engineering;
Stephen Probert, a graduate
student studying mechanical
engineering at the University of
Washington; Adriane Wiltse, majoring
in plastics engineering technology
at Pittsburg State; and
Justin Dameron, also studying
plastics engineering technology at
Pittsburg State.

The Division awarded an additional
26 scholarships, of $1,000
each, to university students during
the past year. Matching grants totaling
$60,000 for the purchase of
thermoforming equipment for use
in university laboratories were also
awarded by the Division. ¦

15
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

2006 NASHVILLE CONFERENCE …

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 16

2006 NASHVILLE CONFERENCE …

And theWinners Are …

Thank You … 2006 Sponsors! The success of our
conference is due to your support.

OUTSTANDING BOARD MEMBER
AWARD PRESENTED BY HAL
GILHAM, AWARDS CHAIR, TO BOB
PORSCHE, GENERAL PLASTICS.

Well Done!
Marty Stephenson2006 Conference Chair

OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENT
AWARD PRESENTED BY BARRY
SHEPHERD, DIVISION VICE
CHAIR TO ROGER FOX, THE
FOXMOR GROUP.

Thank you … Jim Throne …
for your many years of support
to the Thermoforming Division!
We’re gonna miss you!

17
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

THERMOFORMING DIVISION

WINTER BOARD
MEETING SCHEDULE

February 19th – 24th, 2007
Renaissance Sea World Hotel
Orlando, Florida

**Rooms have been reserved in our block
starting Saturday, 2/17 thru 2/24/07 if you
want to come in a few days early for vacation.
These rooms are limited, so FIRST COME,
FIRST SERVE:

FOR RESERVATIONS, CALL:
407.351.5555. Be sure to request the SPE
rate of $229.00.

Tuesday, February 20th, 2007

Executive Committee Arrives

Wednesday, February 21st, 2007

7:30 – 8:30 am – Breakfast – Executive
Committee, Tarpon Room
8:30 am – 5:00 pm – Executive Committee
Meeting, Tarpon Room
12:00 – 1:00 p.m. – Lunch – Executive
Committee, Tarpon Room
2:00 – 3:00 pm – Finance Committee Chairman,
Tarpon Room
4:00 – 5:00 pm – Technical Chairs to meet with
Executive Committee, Tarpon Room
Thursday, February 22nd, 2007

8:30 – 10:30 am – Materials Committee, Eisenia
Room
8:30 – 10:30 am – Processing Committee, Margate
Room
8:30 – 10:30 am – Machinery Committee, Nomeus
Room
10:30 – 11:15 am – AARC Committee, Nomeus
Room
11:15 am – 12:00 pm – Web Site Committee,
Nomeus Room
LUNCH ON YOUR OWN

1:00 – 1:45 pm – Student Programs, Nomeus
Room
1:30 – 2:00 pm – Publications, Nomeus Room
1:45 – 2:15 pm – Recognition, Nomeus Room
2:00 – 2:45 pm – Marketing Committee, Nomeus
Room
2:15 – 3:30 pm – 2007 Conference, Nomeus Room
3:30 – 4:15 pm – Membership, Nomeus Room
Friday, February 23rd, 2007

7:30 – 8:30 am – Breakfast – Board of Directors,
Damselfish Room
8:30 am – Noon – Board of Directors Meeting,
Damselfish Room
12:00 – 1:00 pm – Lunch – Board of Directors,
Damselfish Room
AFTERNOON ON YOUR OWN

5:30 pm – Meet in Lobby for Tram to dinner at
Sea World’s Sandbar Restaurant
Saturday, February 24th, 2007

Non-golfers will have day on their own.

7:30 am – Tee-off time for Golf Outing, Grande
Pines Golf Club. For reservations, call: Joe
Peters at 413.592.4791. Cost: $132.06 for
golf with cart – check payable to SPE TF
Division.
6:00 – 7:00 pm – Reception & Golf Awards
Presentation – Top – of -Dolphins
Sunday, February 25, 2007

Depart

These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

Thermoforming
QUARTERLY 18

LEAD TECHNICAL ARTICLE

The Effect of Sheet Sag on Radiant Energy
Transmission in Thermoforming1

BY JAMES L. THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FLORIDA

Abstract

As sheet is heated in thermoforming, it sags away
from upper heaters and toward lower heaters. The
individual heater efficiencies are affected by the
extent of sag. This work presents an analysis of
radiant energy interchange as a function of the
extent of two-dimensional catenary sag. As
expected, the energy input from the lower heater
to the center of the sagging sheet is greater than
that for a planar sheet and the energy input from
the upper heater to the center of the sagging sheet
is less than that for a planar sheet. However, the
average global energy input to the sheet is
essentially independent of the extent of sag.

Introduction

In thermoforming, the sheet to be heated is
usually placed between two planar parallel or
sandwich heaters. To analyze the efficiencies of
heating profiles, the sheet is usually assumed to
remain planar and parallel to the heaters. However,
as is well known, as the sheet heats, it sags under
its own weight away from the top heaters and
toward the bottom heaters. This paper discusses
the significance of sheet sag on heating efficiencies.
In particular, the focus is on analyzing the view
factor or shape factor, being the relative amount of
sheet surface seen by a specific segment of heater.

1 This paper was to have been presented at ANTEC 2007, Cincin

nati.
2 For sag of a sheet affixed on four edges, the catenary is replaced
with a hyperbolic catenoid (7,8). Although the arithmetic of hyperbolic
catenoidal sheet deformation is only slightly more complex
than that of the catenary model, the determination of the direction
cosines, described below, is very difficult. To this author’s knowledge,
the mathematics dealing with the radiant interchange
between planar heaters and a sheet described by the hyperbolic
catenoid equation has not been published.

Caveats

The objective of this work is to examine the
relative effects of sag on radiant heat transfer. To
do so without substantial obfuscation, the analysis
has been greatly simplified. The following caveats
are in order:

•
The work does not consider the amount of
energy transferred between heaters and
sheet.
•
Therefore the work does not allow
prediction of heating times.
•
The work does not consider any modes of
heat transfer other than radiation. In other
words, conduction of energy into the sheet
and convection of energy from the sheet are
not considered.
•
The work does not consider the relative
thickness of the plastic sheet.
•
For the purposes of analysis, the sheet is
infinitely long, into the paper.
•
For purposes of analysis, the individual
heater elements are considered infinitely
long, into the paper.
The Catenary as a Model for Sheet Sag

Consider a sheet of plastic affixed on two edges,
L distance apart, and sagging under its own weight,
as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 1. Geometry for Catenary or Chain Sheet Sag.

(continued on next page)

19
Thermoforming
QUARTERLY

The total vertical force supported by the edges is
equal to the weight of the sheet of length S*. If the
sheet weighs M units per area, the tension  on the
sheet is given as:

(1)
 sin  = MS*
(2)
 cos  = 0
The slope of the sheet at any point is given as:

dy*
MS* MS*(x*,y*)

(3)
==
dx* 0 0
Where x* = 0 at the center of the sheet and y* is the
deflection of the sheet at position x*. The equation
is solved for the sheet length:

0 Mx*

(4)
S*(x*) = sinh
M (0 )

1Where sinh(z) = (ez – e–z) , the hyperbolic sine.

2

The deflection of the sheet is given as:

(5)
y*(x*) =
0 cosh Mx*– 1
M [(0 )]

1

Where cosh(z) = (ez – e–z) , the hyperbolic cosine.

2

The local tension in the sheet is given as:

(6)
(x*) = 0 cosh Mx*
[()]

0

Or in terms of the deflection:

(7)
(y*) = 0 + My*
The equations above are called catenary or chain
equations [1-3]. The dimensionless sheet length is given
as:

S*  1

(8)
S = = sinh
()

L2 

20

Where  = . The local deflection is given as:

ML

y* 1

(9)
y = = cosh – 1
[


L2 ()]

2x*

Where x = . The maximum deflection is given as:

L

y* 1

(10) ymax = max = cosh – 1
L 2 ()

[


And the dimensionless slope is given as:

dy x

(11) = sinh ()
(dx )

x

Example 4.14 of [3] is modified and used as the
illustration for the rest of this work. The following values
are assumed3:

 = 20/ML = 1.154, -1 < h < 1 Figure 2 shows the sag for these data. The maximum dimensionless sag, y = -0.0232 for =04 and y = max max -0.232 for =-30. Figure 2. Catenary Sag and Sheet Length. The Effect of Sheet Temperature on Sag As the temperature of the sheet increases, its tensile strength decreases. One measure of temperaturedependent tensile strength is the Arrhenius equation: = 0,0e(E / RT–E / RT0) (12) 0 3 Example 4.14 of [3] uses =9.54, yielding a maximum deflection value of y = -0.0217. [Note that the value given in [3] is y = max max -0.0265.] The modified values allow for greater deflection in the sheet. 4 Keep in mind that the sheet sags below the horizontal. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 20 Where 0,0 is the tensile strength at T0. Consider the following simplification for illustration purposes only: _0.07615 (13) =  00,0e When = -30,  = 11.54. When = 0, = 1.154, as given above. The effect of sheet temperature on maximum sag is shown in Figure 2. This assumes that the local sheet weight remains constant. Effect of Sheet Sag on Local Sheet Weight As the sheet sags, its length increases. Because the entire sheet weight is constant, the local sheet weight, M, should decrease with increasing sag. The local sheet weight is obtained by iterating on the differential sheet length. As seen in Figure 3, there is little difference in the values for maximum sag, for = -30 to = 0. Figure 3. Temperature effect on sag, showing correction for local weight reduction. Percent error shown on rightvertical axis. (=0)=1.154. (=-30)=11.54. X-axis: =0 exp(- ). The Radiation Equation Consider the radiant interchange between two differential surfaces, A1 and A2, Figure 4. Figure 4. Geometry for Spherical Radius, direction cosines between differential elements A1 and A2. Consider “1” to represent the element on the radiant heater and “2” to represent the element on the sheet surface. Of primary concern is the projected areas of each element in the directions of the other elements. The net rate of radiation between these differential elements is given as [4,5]: (14) The term q1÷ 2 is the differential energy interchange, Eb1 and Eb2 are the maximum energies5 emitted from elements “1” and “2”, and F1÷ 2 is the local view factor. The terms cos 1 and cos 2 are the direction cosines for elements “1” and “2”. The term “r” is the distance between the two elements and “r2” is the result of the intersection of element “2”, say, with the steradian ray from element “1”, say. Parallel Planar Radiation Equation For parallel planar heaters and sheet, the direction cosines of the elements are given as: (15) Where “z” is the spacing between the differential elements. For two-dimensional energy transfer, the distance between any two elements is given as: (16) The local view factor, F1÷ 2, is given as: (17) For three-dimensional energy transfer, the distance between any two elements is given as: (18) Where y’ is the distance along the heater and sheet surfaces, into the paper. The local view factor in three dimensions, F1÷ 2, is given as: (19) (continued on next page) 5 The maximum emitted energy is called the “black body energy.” 21 Thermoforming QUARTERLY The local view factor is then summed over all “2” elements to determine the average amount of energy interchanged with element “1”. To get the total energy interchanged, these average amounts of energy are then summed over all “1” elements [6]: (20) Consider a sheet with four edges. Because the heaters and sheet are finite in dimension, view factor values at the edges of the sheet are less than those at the center, and the view factor values at the corners are less than those at the edges. As a result, the edges of the sheet receive less radiation than the center of the sheet, and the corners of the sheet receive less radiation than the edges of the sheet. This effect is called the “energy dome,” as seen in Figure 5. Figure 5. Energy dome result of uniform heat flux input for sheet affixed on four sides. In the current example, the sheet has only two edges, being infinite into the page. Thus the effect should be one in which the values of the view factors at the clamped edges of the sheet should be less than those at the center of the sheet. Modification for Sag When the sheet sags, the differential direction cosines are no longer dependent of the (x,y) coordinates of the element. Instead, the direction cosines must be determined for each heater element and each sheet element. Consider a two-dimensional catenary example, Figure 6, where the spacing between the initial sheet plane and the top heater plane, Z=1. As an example, the Figure 6. Ray Map from top heater to sagged sheet. angle between the heater element at L=2 and any sheet surface is determined by obtaining its tangent. The angle between the sheet surface element and the heater element is obtained by first determining the angle of the normal to the sheet surface, n, and then adding the heater angle. The direction cosines are determined from these angles. Figure 7. Upper heater view factor, with and without catenary sag [sag is U-shaped curve, right vertical axis]. Figure 7 is a plot of the local view factor at the upper heater element at L=2, =1.154, for each sheet element, from x=0 to x=2. The sheet sag is also shown. As is apparent when comparing local view factors for sheet with and without sag, sag tends to even out the local view factor value. By examining Figure 6, it is apparent that the slope of the sheet at x=0, say, is toward the L=2 heater element and this acts to increase the projected area of that element and thus increase the local Thermoforming QUARTERLY 22 view factor value. On the other hand, the slope of the sheet at x=2 is away from the L=2 heater element. This acts to decrease the projected area of that element and thus decrease that local view factor value. Again, as the sheet sags, the center moves away from the top heater, and toward the lower heater. Again, the rays from a given heater element at L=0 on the bottom heater are shown intersecting the sagging sheet, for =1.154 and Z=1, Figure 8. Figure 8. Ray Map from bottom heater to sagged sheet. It is apparent that at some point, the angle of the normal to the sheet is at right angles to the ray from that heater element. The projected area becomes zero and the heater element cannot see sheet elements beyond that point. A comparison of the local view factor with and without catenary sag is sown in Figure 9 for the heater element at L=2, =1.154, and Z=1. It is apparent that the heater cannot see the sagging sheet from x=0 to around x=0.5 Figure 9. Lower heater view factor, with and without catenary sag [sag is Hum-shaped curve, with axis to right]. or so. It is also apparent that as the sheet sags, it sees increasing energy very close to the sheet clamps. The Overall Effect on Heating Efficiency Figures 7 and 9 represent the local view factor value taken for one element, viz, that at L=2. As noted earlier, the local view factor values can be determined at each of the heater elements. Because the heaters and sheet are symmetrical about the point x=0, we need only sum the heater elements from L=1 to L=2, say. The results of the summation for top and bottom heaters, Z=1, =1.154, are given in Figure 10. Figure 10. The effect of sag on the view factors for top and bottom local heaters, Z=1, =1.154. As expected, the values for the local view factor for the planar sheet are less at L=2 than at the center of the sheet, L=1. Not surprising, the same is true for the sagging sheet. As expected, the energy input from the bottom heater to the center of the sagging sheet is substantially greater than that for the sheet that does not sag. As expected, the energy input from the top heater to the sagging sheet across its entire length is less than that for the sheet that does not sag. The Significance of This Finding to Sheet Heating Consider that the sheet is thin but radiantly opaque. This implies that the sheet temperature is uniform throughout the sheet thickness. This allows for an (continued on next page) 23 Thermoforming QUARTERLY Figure 11. Local heater view factors with and without catenary sag [thin lines, left axis]. Average view factors are shown as horizontal lines [thick lines, right axis]. z=1, =1.154, ymax=-0.0232. analysis using average energy input top and bottom across the sheet. Now consider Figure 11. The average local energy input to the planar sheet exhibits the expected “energy dome,” with less energy input at the clamp edges than at x=1. As the sheet sags, the average local energy input increases in the center and decreases at the clamps. In other words, as the sheet sags, it gets hotter in the center than it would if it did not sag. This is as expected. Interestingly, however, the average global energy input to the sheet is essentially constant. Consider now that the sheet is radiantly opaque and sufficiently thick to cause substantial thermal inertia of inbound radiation. In other words, the sheet conducts energy from its surface to its interior. This effectively decouples energy input to the top and bottom of the sheet. In Figure 11, sag results in substantially more energy input to the bottom center of the sheet surface than is expected from planar parallel sheet energy input, and less than is expected to the bottom edges of the sheet surface. Sag results in somewhat less energy to the top surface of the sheet than is expected from planar parallel sheet energy input. However, although the “energy dome” is evident, the result is a nearly uniform reduction along the entire sheet length. Through-the-oven-wall infrared thermometers usually measure only the top surface of the sheet while it is in the oven. So, although the top sheet surface temperature may appear to be low but within guidelines, the energy imbalance to the sagging sheet can result in significant overheating of the bottom center of the sheet. Summary In summary, energy interchange between a thin sheet and sandwich heaters may not be dramatically affected by moderate sheet sag, but sag may significantly alter local energy input to the bottom of a thick sheet. ¦ References 1. J. L. Meriam, Mechanics: Part I – Statics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951, pp. 184186. 2. E. H. Lockwood, A Book of Curves, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1967, pp. 118-124. 3. J. L. Throne, Technology of Thermoforming, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1996, pp. 269277. 4. F. Kreith, Principles of Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed., International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA, 1958, pp. 216-219. 5. M. F. Modest, Radiative Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1993, pp. 157-162. 6. J. L. Throne, Technology of Thermoforming, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1996, pp. 156157. 7. R. C. Yates, A Handbook on Curves and Their Properties, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1952, pg. 56. 8. See also http;//mathworld.wolfram.com/ hyperbola.html. Past Thermoformers of the Year Honored at Conference In attendance at the conference were: (L-R): 1999-Art Buckel, 2003-Bill Benjamin, 1991-Stan Rosen, 2006-Paul Alongi, 1982-Bill McConnell, 2002-Stephen Sweig, and 2004-Steve Hasselbach. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 24 INDUSTRY PRACTICE Determining the Effect of Corner Radius on Container Volume BY JIM THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FLORIDA I I n a recent TF 101 lesson, I discussed corner radii and pointed out that radii remove volume from a container. In this Industry Practice article, I show how to calculate the approximate volume that is excluded by corners of various radii. Consider a rectangular container, A units wide, B units deep, and C units in height, Figure 1. Divide the container horizontally into a bottom portion having a height of R, being the radius of the 3D corners, and a top portion having a height of L=C-R, Figure 2. Bottom Volume Consider the bottom first. The volume of the bottom having all intersections of zero radius is given as AxBxR = ABR = Vbottom. • The vertical 2D corners, formed by the intersection of two vertical walls, have radius r. • The horizontal 2D corners, formed by the intersection of each vertical wall and the bottom, have radius r*. • The 3D corners, as noted, have radius R. For the 3D corners, the excluded volume is given as the volume of the corners having zero radius minus the volume of the hemisphere of radius R. • The volume of the corners having radius zero = 2R x 2R x R=4R3. • The volume of the hemisphere = 1/2 (4/3)R3 = (2/ 3)R3. • The excluded volume in the 3D corners is given as (4-2/3)R3. For the horizontal 2D corners formed by the intersection of each vertical wall and the bottom, consider the A and B sides individually. The A Side For the A side, the excluded volume is given as the volume of the corners having zero radius minus the volume of the half-cylinder of radius r*. The lengths of the rectangle having zero radius corners and half-cylinder are the same, being A minus twice the portion of the 3D corners that impinge on the 2D corners. As an approximation, consider the lengths to be A-2R. • The volume of the rectangle is then given as (A-2R) x 2r* x r* = 2 (A-2R)r*2 • The volume of the half-cylinder is given as (A-2R) x r*2/2 • The excluded volume in the horizontal 2D corners is given as (A-2R)r*2 [2-/2] The B Side For the B side, the excluded volume is given as the volume of the corners having zero radius minus the volume of the half-cylinder of radius r*. The lengths of the rectangle having zero radius corners and half-cylinder are the same, being B minus twice the portion of the 3D corners that impinge on (continued on next page) 25 Thermoforming QUARTERLY the 2D corners. As an approximation, consider the lengths to be B-2R. • The volume of the rectangle is then given as (B-2R) x 2r* x r* = 2 (B-2R)r*2 • The volume of the half-cylinder is given as (B-2R) x r*2/2 • The excluded volume in the horizontal 2D corners is given as (B-2R)r*2 [2-/2] Because the bottom is only as high as the top of the 3D corner radius, we choose to ignore any portion of the vertical radius in this calculation. As a result, we can now determine the total volume of the bottom with radii, being the volume of the bottom with zero radii minus the excluded volume in the corners: = A x B x R - (4-2/3)R3 - r*2 [2-/2](A+B-4R) Vbottom Top Volume Now consider the top portion. The volume of the top portion having zero 2D vertical corner radii is Vtop = A x B x (C-R) = AB(C-R). For the vertical 2D corners, consider the excluded volume to be the volume of a rectangle 2r on a side by a length C-R – minus a cylinder of length C-R and a radius r. • The volume of the rectangle is given as (C-R) x 4r2 • The volume of the cylinder is given as (C-R) x r2 • The excluded volume in the vertical 2D corners is thus given as (C-R)r2 [4-] The volume of the top is then given as: Vtop = (C-R) [AB-(4-)r2] Total Volume The total volume of the radiused box is then: Vbottom + Vtop = ABR - (4-2/3)R3 - r*2 [2-/2](A+B-4R) + (C-R) [AB-(4-)r2] An Example Consider a five-sided cube, 1 unit on a side. For the first calculation, let the 3D corner radius, R=0.2, the horizontal 2D corner radius, r*=0.1, and the vertical 2D corner radius, r=0.05. Determine the volume of the radiused box: = 0.2 - (4-2/3)0.23 – 0.12[2-/2](2-4 x 0.2)+ Vradiused box (1-0.2)[1-(4-)0.052] = 0.2 – 0.0152 - 0.0052 + 0.7982 = 0.9778 Vradiused box As calculated, the radiused box has nearly 98% the volume of the box with zero radius corners. A Modified Example Now recalculate the earlier example, doubling all radii. R=0.4, r*=0.2, r=0.1. = 0.4 - (4-2/3)0.43 – 0.22[2-/2](2-4 x 0.4)+ Vradiused box (1-0.4)[1-(4-)0.12] = 0.4 – 0.122 – 0.0069 + 0.5948 = 0.86592 Vradiused box As calculated, the severely radiused box still has nearly 87% of the volume of the box with zero radius corners. ¦ Supplying the World with Plastic Processing Equipment Supplying the World with Plastic Processing EquipmentSupplying the World with Plastic Processing Equipment Auctions • Appraisals • Liquidations New and Used Machinery Sales Thermoforming • Injection Molding • Extrusion Blow Molding • Rotational Molding Why buy with Stopol: .. If it is out there, we will find it. With our database of more than 27,000 companies, we will locate the equipment you need. .. Our expertise and knowledge will provide you with the best machines to meet your needs. .. Our vast inventory provides you with a variety of choices and alternatives. .. Photos and video footage are available. Why sell with Stopol: .. Actively market your equipment to more than 27,000 companies, utilizing phone, fax, email and advertising campaigns to get your equipment in front of qualified buyers. .. We include your equipment on our web site which produces more than 125,000 hits per month. .. We team with the most recognized and trusted publications in the plastics industry --Plastics News, Modern Plastics, Plastics Hotline and Thermoforming Quarterly --to market your equipment. .. Global presence with offices in London and Shanghai. Whether its remarketed plastics processing equipment, a plant auction, inventory liquidation, or the sale and acquisition of a business, product line, or manufacturing license – Stopol is the resource. STOPOL NEWS Lyle Industries, Inc. has announced the appointment of Stopol, Inc. as exclusive representatives to market the Lyle RFT Custom thermoformer and related equipment in North America. The RFT Custom offers complete form-trim stack capabilities in an economical, rugged package. Standard mold size is 32 x 36 inches. An available quick-change tooling package helps make the RFT Custom a versatile, efficient choice for a variety of applications, and the heavy duty construction helps ensure durability and precise thermoforming performance. Stopol Office- Europe Stopol Office -Asia London Berkeley Square Shanghai One Corporate Center 2nd Floor 15F One Corporate Avenue Berkeley SquareHouse 22 Hu Bin Road London, W1J 68DUK LuWan District Phone: +44 (0) 207-887-6102 Phone: +86 21 6122 1302 Fax: +44 (0) 207-887-6100 Fax: +86 21 6122 2418 Eu_sales@stopol.com Ap_sales@stopol.com Thermoforming QUARTERLY 26 THERMOFORMING DIVISION DVD’S STILL AVAILABLE The first DVD is titled: “WHAT EXACTLY IS THERMOFORMING?” This six-minute DVD introduces the viewer to the thermoforming process with examples of parts produced and a video of the process. Both thin gauge roll fed and heavy gauge cut sheet fed aspects of thermoforming are illustrated. It is for students, industry and anyone who wished to learn more about thermoforming. The second DVD is titled: “FORMING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES: GRANTS AND SCHOLARSHIPS OFFERED BY THE SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS – THERMOFORMING DIVISION” This six-minute DVD discusses the 13 matching equipment grants of up to $10,000 and 20 scholarships up to $5,000 for college students. Information is provided for applying to these grants and scholarships. The Thermoforming Division of SPE has contributed over $150,000 in equipment grants and scholarships as of this date. Both DVDs are free of charge and available from SPE through Gail Bristol at phone number 203-740-5447 or Gwen Mathis, Thermoforming Division, at phone number 706-235-9298. These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 27ThermoformingQUARTERLY INDUSTRY PRACTICE Controlling the 3 M’s of Forming BY GARY BENEDIX, SYSCON-PLANTSTAR, SOUTH BEND, INDIANA F F rom the 1980s when we worked with Samsonite to today and working with some of the most sophisticated thermoformers in the industry, the message has remained the same. If you can control the 3 M’s of forming, Machine, Manpower and Material, you will be profitable. Machines are a business owner’s big capital expense. Be they rotary or in-line formers or table CNC machines, owners want to get the most out of these machines. Due to the cost of equipment and floor space requirements, they want to purchase more equipment as a last resort and have it due only to business growth. Since they are typically selling time they want to squeeze every second of production time out of the machines as possible. When Samsonite first implemented our real-time production monitoring system, they were confident forming was operating at 80+% efficiency levels. The system quickly measured their true operating efficiency in a range of 68%72%. After consulting with them on the methods of data gathering and calculation, they agreed. At that point they had their first benchmark for productivity improvement and eventually achieved efficiencies of 85% and more. Mif you aren’t always at the machine. A monitoring system is measure. It doesn’t take lunch breaks, biological breaks or time off for holidays. It knows the standards upon which product is supposed to be manufactured. It constantly measures true performance against those standards and reveals problem areas for you. The “Samsonite syndrome” is quite common. Managers believe they have a good handle on machine performance. They see product moving and machines running. Everything must be good, right? Wrong. You can never know for sure A leading thermoformer began a phased-in implementation of our system over a year ago. As you toured the factory, you saw a major backup of product queued to move into the CNC room for trimming. Since that was a problem area, this customer started system implementation there so as to get accurate data on the performance of the machines. This customer quickly saw major cycle time swings on the CNC tables caused by setup and operational issues. They corrected the problem. The logjam of product in queue was eliminated and they put the purchase of another table on hold. Another, Spencer Industries, has used the Overall transfers from a monitoring system. You automate those Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) calculation generated by tasks and, in most cases, train the person to perform more the system to identify opportunities for improvement. important functions to better support the company’s overall Machine cycle time and Tool changeover time are just two mission. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 28 areas they have improved. According to Ken Hedges, Director of Continuous Improvement, they have also greatly benefited from our dynamic Gantt chart Job Scheduling Board. One common area formers target is scrap. Scrap is lost opportunity of time and material. Some large parts have a high dollar value and cost of scrap escalates quickly. A recent visit to a former revealed they had run 30% scrap on a medical product during the night shift prior to my arrival. They had no way of documenting this other than paper tracking. Management became informed when reports were generated on a spreadsheet several hours later. This was a significant cost of time, machine, manpower and material that would have been detected and corrected much sooner with the proper implementation of a monitoring system. Most monitoring systems let you define and track your scrap reasons and quantities. When the biggest reasons are for scrap are revealed, corrective action can be taken. Sometimes it is as simple as the way product is handled. Other times it may be more complicated and based on machine control or tool setup issues. Sometimes it might even be environmentally related. Either way, once you can measure the performance, you can set benchmarks for improvement. Oftentimes, improvement in machine and product control result in reduced labor requirements. Sometimes it may be as little as reducing the number of temporary workers a company employs. Other times the improvements may allow you to reduce overtime or eliminate weekend shifts. Reduction in headcount has also been achieved due to the productivity improvements realized by the system. These reductions may be on the production floor or in the front office. The paper reporting systems still in use at many formers typically require a person on the floor to document production, a person in the office to collate the data and enter the data into an accounting/MRP system. This redundant data shuffling frequently leads to data entry errors or delays in generating reports because this person is interrupted during their efforts to complete the task. Electronic gathering of the data by the system will automatically generate reports at the End of Shift. Plus, most accounting/MRP systems can accept electronic data As these improvements are realized, many customers then want to move into tracking and forecasting their labor. The need to gain a better understanding of the true amount of direct and indirect labor required manufacturing product. The SYSCON-PlantStar system is one of very few systems that enables you to do all three. For every product you can specify Manning Factors of both direct and indirect labor requirements. Personnel login to the system at the machine when they are performing their task; i.e. Operator, Setup, Material Handler, Maintenance, etc. Likewise, they log out when their task is complete. The date and time they logged in/logged out are documented. The amount of time spent on task is measured. This helps significantly with benchmarking tool changeovers. Operator Efficiency against standard is calculated. Setting Manning Factors in the product standards of the system enables Labor Forecasting based on the Job Schedule. Up to 30 different labor categories can be defined, tracked and forecasted within the system. Each can have a costing factor included. Labor requirements for each category are then forecasted by the system. You can see forecasted requirements for up to 100 shifts. Having real-time manufacturing information available at your fingertips is essential for making realtime management decisions that help you stay agile and competitive in today’s fast paced environment. Monitoring systems are relatively easy to implement. SYSCON- PlantStar now has a low cost entry level system that can contains many of the functions of our larger systems to help you gain control of the 3 M’s. The common declaration we hear after a system is in place and in use is: “How did we ever operate without it?” ¦ These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY PERFORMANCE. INNOVATION. DEPENDABILITY. Proven Partnership. Worldwide Benefits. For the best in trim-in-place and high volume thermoforming equipment, parts and service, talk to the global experts at Lyle and Gabler. Call 989-435-7717 for details, or visit lyleindustries.com. 4144 W. Lyle Road ¦ Beaverton, MI 48612www.gabler-maschinenbau.de THERMOFORMING SEMINARS Our new schedule for 2007 in: Hartford, Connecticut Jan. 16th to 19th Troy, Michigan Jan. 23rd to 26th San Diego, California Jan. 30th to Feb. 2nd Featuring special presentations on: . Thermoforming TPO sheet . Quality and testing for Thermoforming . Forming composite thermoplastic sheet . Registration forming of distortion printed sheet Please visit us at www.Thermoforming.com for complete details and registration. 29 Thermoforming QUARTERLY INDUSTRY PRACTICE Books for a Small Company Library BY JIM THRONE, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA F F or several years now, I have been reviewing resource material in a column entitled “Book Review.” In this Quarterly, for example, I review a book on plastics extrusion troubleshooting. That review is my last as technical editor of the Thermoforming Quarterly. But I cannot leave the subject without responding to requests for a list of books suitable for a small company library. So, instead of scrapping my standard column, I provide this list under “Industry Practice.” I hope the incoming editor will forgive me for this indiscretion. I determined that all of the books listed below, with the exception of the McConnell book, are available through www.Amazon.com. Excluding the McConnell book, I estimate the total cost for the lot is about $1,500. General Book on Plastics Charles A. Harper (and Modern Plastics), Modern Plastics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000. Yeah, I know I gave this a less-than-enthusiastic review when it first issued. That was because its section on thermoforming was particularly weak and outdated. Nevertheless, it is an essentially up-to-date compendium of most recognized plastics areas. As with any general handbook, however, it is weak on details and substance. General Books on Plastic Materials J. A. Brydson, Plastics Materials, 7th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1999. This is an extensive descriptive compilation of most of the plastics that can be extruded into sheet and thermoformed into parts (and many that cannot). There is a smattering of physical property data. It is often used as a textbook for an introductory course in plastics. H. Domininghaus, Plastics for Engineers: Materials, Properties, Applications, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, OH, 1993. An extensive tabulation of physical property data for most commercial polymers. Very little descriptive material and essentially no indication of the data sources. General Books on Plastics Processing R. G. Griskey, Polymer Process Engineering, Chapman & Hall, New York, 1995. There are many engineering books from which to choose here. This book is traditional in that it emphasizes mechanical or chemical engineering concepts such as fluid mechanics and heat transfer as applied to polymers. I think this is the most readable and has the clearest worked-out examples. R. J. Crawford, Plastics Engineering, 3rd Ed., Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford, 1998. This book focuses on the material behavior of polymers during processing. There are extensive worked-out examples. The paperback edition is inexpensive but may not wear well in a company library. General Book on Thermoforming J. L. Throne, Understanding Thermoforming, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, OH, 1999. Okay, so it is my contribution. But I wrote it specifically for just such an application. Book on Roll-Fed Thermoforming Stanley R. Rosen, Thermoforming: Improving Process Performance, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, MI, 2002. An excellent presentation of most aspects of thermoforming with a focus on thin-gauge, roll-fed forming. I gave it five books out of five in my review. Book on Cut-Sheet Thermoforming Wm. K. McConnell, The Fundamentals of Thermoforming, Society of Plastics Engineers, 2001. This is the companion volume to the two video tapes. It focuses on machine and mold aspects of thermoforming with the primary emphasis on cut-sheet thermo- Thermoforming QUARTERLY 30 forming. [Caveat: I’m not certain that the volume can be purchased without purchasing the videos as well.] Book on Extrusion C. Rauwendaal, Polymer Extrusion, 4th Edition, Completely Revised, Hanser Gardner, Cincinnati, OH, 2001. Because extruders are our suppliers, we should have working knowledge of many aspects of sheet extrusion. Although this book is designed specifically for extrusion engineers and therefore is quite technical, the general overview should be of interest to thermoformers. Online Encyclopedia www.wikipedia.com. As is well publicized, the items for this online encyclopedia can be created and edited by anyone and everyone. Nevertheless, many articles on plastics seem to be free of commerciality, bias, or out-and-out errors. Articles on “plastics” and “nanocomposites” appear to be firstrate but unfortunately very short. The biggest problem is that there are no articles in many technical areas. For example, there is no article on plastics extrusion. And the topic of mold making focuses on injection mold manufacture. Or plastics design … Or … Well, you get the idea. Online Patent Search I like www.delphion.com even though its format is really kind of dowdy. If I’m not mistaken, Delphion is an outgrowth of the IBM patent search engine. There are two modes of access – the free mode and a subscription mode. In the free all search engines, the more mode, you can search a patent and information you put in, the narrower read the abstract and figures but you the search becomes. Delphion gives can’t download the body of the you a relevance factor for each patent without paying for it. As with patent it uncovers. ¦ Thanks again to our 2006 Conference Sponsors! The success of our conference is due to your support. These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY ................................ ........................................ ................ .................................................................................. .................................................................. ...................................................... .............................................................................. ........................................................ ............................ ................................................................ .................................................... ................................................................ ................................ .................................................... .......................................... ........................................................................ ...................... .................................................................................. .............................. .................................................................................. ...................................................................................... .................................................................................... 31 Thermoforming QUARTERLY The Rim1 BY JIM THRONE, SHERWOOD TECHNOLOGIES, INC., DUNEDIN, FL S S o, we know about draft angles and corners and wall thickness variation and on and on. But what about the rim? You know, the region of the formed part that forms the periphery of the part. This lesson focuses on some of the important issues dealing with the rim. In the next lesson, we’ll look at the characteristics of the trimmed edge itself. Does the Rim Have a Function in the Part? Other than just being the edge of the part, let’s say. In thin-gauge forming of axisymmetric parts such as cups, the trimmed-out rim is usually manipulated in a post-molding operation known are rim-rolling. Here, the cup is rotated along its axis as the rim is heated and softened. The rotating action forces the soften rim against a shaping ring that effectively rolls the rim into an annulus. The rolled rim provides great stiffness to an otherwise flimsy thin-walled container. Staying with thin-gauge products for a moment, the rim design for lidded containers often requires interlocks and detents that must be quite precise. In certain instances, the container rim may include denesting features that allow stacked containers to be readily separated by the customer. What about the rim on a heavygauge part? Often the rim is the finished edge of the part. The rim may be very simple, such as the trimmed end of a flat surface. Or it may be very complex, with radii, chamfers, and ridges. The rim may be designed to fit into or over another part, Or it may be trimmed to accept secondary assembly 1 This is my last TF 101 column. The new TFQ editorial staff will determine whether the column will continue. THERMOFORMING 101 features. The part design may require the trim line to be “hidden,” so that the rim is U-shaped with appropriate radii or chamfers. Can We Get the Formed Part Off the Mold? Before we contemplate this question in detail, remember that thermoformed parts shrink as they cool. So they shrink away from the sides of a female or negative mold cavity and onto the sides of a male or positive mold cavity. If we build a simple cup mold, for example, and design the rim so that the plastic is formed over a ring at the mold top, we need to provide adequate draft to get the thing off the mold. In other words, the rim will not have rightangled sides. Does this affect the design? By the way, this design is often called a “dam” design. This design minimizes excess plastic from being drawn over the edge of the mold and into the mold cavity. Frequently a trim line concentric to the dam will also be molded in. This is often called a “moat.” We discussed the hidden trim line a minute ago. How are we going to get the part off the mold? Flip-up sections? Removable sections? It is very difficult to get moving mold sections to seat without a gap between mating parts. As a result, we may wind up with a “witness line” right at the most cosmetic portion of the part. And keep in mind that, without plug assist, parts really thin rapidly when vacuum- or pressure-drawn into parallel-walled mold sections. What About Texture? Whenever you draw textured sheet, the texture flattens. In grained sheet, the effect is called “grain wash.” The typical rule of thumb is that texture flattening is acceptable if the local draw ratio is less than about two or the local thickness is more than half the original sheet thickness. The real problem occurs in the rim area where the sheet is often drawn into sharp corner radii. One design method is to chamfer the rim. A second is to facet the surface design. A third is to use a series of steps. In each of these cases, the objective is to trick the eye into seeing local architecture rather than texture. The alternative to drawing textured sheet is to texture the mold. However, as any mold maker will tell you, it is very difficult to build uniform texture into very sharply radiused corners. You should never fall into the habit of leaving rim design to the end of product design. ¦ Keywords: rolled rim, moat, dam, hidden trim line, textured sheet Thermoforming QUARTERLY 32 BOOK REVIEW M. del Pilar Noriega E., and Chris Rauwendaal,Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process: A Systematic Approach to Solving Plastic Extrusion Problems, Hanser Publishers, Munich, 2001, 158+x pages, $89.95. E E xtruders. Love ’em or hate ’em, we cannot thermoform without the product they produce. We really don’t need to get intimate with the workings of these devices. Unless, of course, we’re extruding some or all of our sheet ourselves. Or contemplating doing so. In either case, you’ll find yourself experiencing … yes! You guessed it! PLASTIC EXTRUSION PROB- LEMS! Dr. Chris Rauwendaal is the senior author of this treatise. He is the author of Polymer Extrusion, one of the best selling treatises in Hanser’s catalogue, now in its 4th edition. Not only has Rauwendaal “talked the talk” through his international seminars, but he has “walked the walk,” having developed screw designs that are measurably superior to other commercial designs. His designs are being used in more than a hundred installations worldwide. Recently, he has focused his effort on improving injection molding machine screw designs and on the development of highly efficient screws for the secondary extruder in low-density tandem foam extrusion. His coauthor, Marie del Pilar Noriega, is a practicing engineer in Medellin, Colombia, S.A., with extensive extrusion experience in Latin America. 1 Sherlockian = having the deduction skills of the fictional character, Sherlock Holmes. 2 Forensics = The use of science and technology to investigate and establish facts. 3 Voila = pronounced waa-laa (NOT voylaa), and meaning to call attention to or express satisfaction with a thing shown or accomplished. The monograph focuses entirely on troubleshooting single-screw extrusion. There are four chapters – Requirements for Efficient Troubleshooting (5 pages), Tools for Troubleshooting (12 pages), Systematic Troubleshooting (84 pages), and Case Studies (40 pages). There are three Appendices – Systemic Problem Solving, Machine Troubleshooting and Maintenance, and Setting Extruder Temperatures. The index is 31/2 double-columned pages. In many cases, debugging a processing problem requires skills in Sherlockian1 deduction. The word “forensics2” is often used here. As is apparent, the primary thrust in this monograph is the step-by-step elimination of probable causes of processing difficulties. One usually begins with the most obvious or the simplest items. Obvious machine malfunction is always high priority. The motor, the heaters, the feed to the extruder. Then to the more subtle issues. Screw wear, corrosion, rear seal bearing wear. Then to the polymer. Thermal degradation, oxidative degradation, chemical decomposition (think rigid PVC). Then to throughputinduced processing issues such as surging, un-melt. Well, you get the picture. The authors include thirteen case studies. They include film coextrusion problems, color variation, pipe extrusion issues, and parison extrusion problems. On a very rare occasion, a case study will exactly focus on the problem that you, the processing engineer, is facing at the very moment you are reading. At that point, it is correct to say “Voila!3” There are several other ways case studies can be used. They can be used as tutorials, teaching the reader the deductive process, by example. While this technique is not common in engineering, it is extensively used in business and law. Seasoned troubleshooters often use these guides in an entirely different way. The troubleshooter will propose a solution as soon as he/she reads about the problem. Then he/she will read the authors’ solution. And agree or disagree with them. The authors recognize this use, writing in the Preface that they “…welcome feedback from readers, along with additional material on extrusion troubleshooting. This will allow more information to be incorporated into future editions of this book.” In other words, if you didn’t solve the problem the way they did, let them know your method (and why). Several years ago, I included a troubleshooting guide in one of my books. A reviewer of the manuscript criticized me, saying that troubleshooting guides are wastes of valuable space in any book. He then included several additional problemsolving solutions to illustrate his viewpoint! I, of course, included them in the finished book. In my opinion, the Rauwendaal-del Pilar Noriega guide is invaluable to anyone extruding sheet or to anyone wanting to better understand the problems that can occur with your sheet supply. I give this little monograph five books out of five. ¦ ~ Jim Throne Visit the SPE website at www. 4spe. org 33 Thermoforming QUARTERLY Council Report … Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania BY LOLA CARERE, COUNCILOR T T his summary is intended to help you review the highlights of the Council Meeting held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on September 30th, 2006. The meeting was called to order by SPE President Tim Womer. President Womer welcomed all to his home city of Pittsburgh. He highlighted some of the many activities he has undertaken as Society president. He noted that the state of the Society is stable. Executive Director Susan Oderwald reported on exciting new developments. Among them, a new website for students, a newly redesigned Plastics Engineering magazine, and a totally new venture with Plastics News called Plastics Encounter at ANTEC 2007. Details on these new developments are presented later in this report. Past President Lance Neward gave an informative report on Parliamentary Procedure in which he explained the importance of minutes and what should be included in them. Budget The major Council action was the approval of the 2007 calendar-year budget. A full write-up on the budget was distributed to Councilors and to all Section and Division Board members in preparation for this meeting. The budget that was approved calls for gross income of $5,655,000, direct expenses of $3,145,000, staff & overhead expenses of $2,395,000 and a net income of $115,000. Council approved the budget by a unanimous vote unchanged from the original presentation. A full areaby- area presentation of this budget is available to Section and Division Board members at: http://extranet.4spe.org/council/ index.php?dir=Pittsburgh%20 Council%20Meeting/. Membership Our overall membership as of August 31st, 2006, is 19,186. SPE, like every other scientific and engineering membership society, and most other associations as well, has seen a decline in new member acquisition in the past 12 months. In late September, SPE conducted a brief email survey of recently suspended members to ascertain some of the key reasons those members have allowed their SPE memberships to lapse. Results will be reported at a later date. Plastics Encounter @ ANTEC 2007 Plastics News first approached SPE at the end of May to determine if SPE would be interested in co-locating Plastics News’ tradeshow, Plastics Encounter, with ANTEC next year. A dialogue ensued over the summer months. As a result of these negotiations, Plastics Encounter will now co-locate with ANTEC at the Duke Energy Center in Cincinnati, May 6th - 10th, 2007. Each event will retain its own name and identity, and they will operate under the combined title “Plastics Encounter @ ANTEC.” In addition, each event will be cross promoted via the other’s marketing materials and initiatives. Plastics News is devoting all of its tradeshow energies and resources to this combined event in 2007. Both groups are seeking to position these two shows as THE defining event for the plastics industry in North America in 2007. This is a one-year agreement. Providing all goes well, both parties have expressed their desire to continue this partnership in future years. SPE hotels include the Millennium Cincinnati and the Hyatt Regency Cincinnati. A single-occupancy rate of $127 has been negotiated for SPE/ ANTEC attendees at both hotels. Plastics Engineering Redesign Presentation Council had a “first look” at what they can expect to see in the Society’s magazine for 2007. The interior has undergone a redesign from cover to cover. The magazine has an international look and includes a global editorial perspective. Plastics Engineering’s global debut is set for the January 2007 issue. NEW StudentZone Website Under the leadership of Maria Russo, the StudentZone student website was unveiled earlier this month. An eight-member committee assisted Maria in developing the site content, graphics, production, navigation, etc. One important goal of the site is to increase retention and conversion rates among student members. ANTEC 2009 TPC Council approved Dr. Gregory McKenna as the 2009 ANTEC Technical Program Chair. Bylaws & Policies A first reading was held on four Bylaws Amendments relative to the Honored Service Member and Fellow of the Society member grades and election committees. Council voted to pass along consideration of these amendments to all members (via publication of the amendments in Plastics Engineering) for their review and knowledge. A final vote on the amendments will take place at the January Council meeting in Charleston, South Carolina. Thermoforming QUARTERLY 34 The Council also voted to approve four new Policies. Policies are being written to include information removed from the old Bylaws such as details on how committees are formed and function, or all the steps involved in the election of Society officers. The four policies approved at this meeting were the Policy on Policies, the Policy on Committees and Subcommittees, the Policy on Election of Officers, and the Anti-Trust Policy. The SPE Foundation Special campaigns are being conducted as part of the Foundation’s 2006 Annual Campaign. Each campaign is being headed by a member of the Foundation Board of Trustees or the Foundation Executive Committee A general Foundation grant of $5,500 was made to Pennsylvania College of Technology to be used for the purchase of a rotational molding data acquisition system for their Plastics Manufacturing Center. A $10,000 Thermoforming Equipment grant was made to the University of Wisconsin-Platteville for auxiliary equipment for their new thermoformer. Twenty-seven students are the recipients of $95,500 in scholarships for the 2006-2007 school year. In addition, the Thermoforming Division chose to use funds from a special event at their 2005 conference to create “Director’s Choice” scholarships. Each member of the board was able to select one student to receive a $1,000 scholarship. Twenty-six students benefited from this new program! As a result, the total awarded in scholarship funding by the Foundation for 2006 is $121,500. Susan Oderwald, Karen Winkler, and Gail Bristol have developed a plan for corporate outreach for use by both the Foundation and SPE. Presentations The Pittsburgh Section presented a check endowing a new Pittsburgh Section Scholarship within The SPE Foundation. The Bartlesville-Tulsa Section presented a check as a donation to the “Match Your Members” campaign, which is part of the Foundation’s 2006 Annual Campaign. Awards The Education Awards Committee approved a new award to be known as the Outstanding Student Chapter Award. This award replaces the old STRETCH Award. The OSC Award includes a cash award of $500 (courtesy of the Thermoforming Division) to Student Chapters that meet specific criteria. Student Chapters Council voted to charter two new Student Chapters in India: Amrita School of Engineering Delhi College of Engineering Committee Meetings Fifteen committees met prior to the Council meetings. The following Committee/Officer Reports were given at the Council meeting: a) Sections – R. Corneliussen b) Divisions – B. Arendt c) International – J. Ratzlaff d) ANTEC – S. Monte Council Committee-of-the- Whole Jim Griffing, Chair of the Committee, conducted the meeting prior to the formal Council meeting. The next formal Council meeting is scheduled for Saturday, January 27th, 2007, in Charleston, South Carolina. ¦ These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 35ThermoformingQUARTERLY Help Sponsor Thermoforming® Q U A R T E R L Y ONE YR. SPONSORSHIPS **Please note the increase in sponsorship rates. This is the first increase since the inception of the Thermoforming Quarterly in 1981. We appreciate your continued support of our award winning publication. Patron - $625 (Includes 2.25" x 1.25" notice) Benefactor - $2,000 (Includes 4.75" x 3" notice) Questions? Please Contact: Laura Pichon Ex-Tech Plastics 815/678-2131 Ext. 624 lpichon@extechplastics.com We Appreciate Your Support! From The Editor Thermoforming Quarterly welcomes letters from its readers. All letters are subject to editing for clarity and space and must be signed. Send to: Mail Bag, Thermoforming Quarterly, P. O. Box 471, Lindale, Georgia 30147-1027, fax 706/295-4276 or e-mail to: gmathis224@aol.com. These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Thermoforming QUARTERLY 36 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 2006 DATES LOCATIONS PRESENTS: MOVING BEYOND THE BASICS A TWO-DAY SEMINAR ON ADVANCED HEAVY-GAUGE THERMOFORMING DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN IN-DEPTH LOOK AT ALL ASPECTS OF THE THERMOFORMING PROCESS WHILE HIGHLIGHTING ADVANCED MATERIALS 2006 DATES LOCATIONS 23-24 May 2006 Solvay Engineered Polymers - Auburn Hills, MI 22-23 June 2006 (SPE sponsored) at NPE - Chicago, IL 18-19 July 2006 Land Instruments - Newtown, PA 22-23 August 2006 Spartech Prod Devel Ctr - Warsaw, IN 17-18 October 2006 Soliant LLC - Lancaster, SC 15-16 November 2006 Atlanta, GA 12-13 December 2006 Los Angeles, CA COST: $395.00 PER PERSON: INCLUDES INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND REFRESHMENTS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: www.plasticoncepts.com MARK YOUR CALENDAR! 2007 THERMOFORMING CONFERENCE September 16th - 19th, 2007 Duke Energy Center & Millennium Hotel Cincinnati, Ohio 37 Thermoforming QUARTERLY Thermoformers, have you discovered a forming tip that you are willing to share with your fellow formers? A time saver? Or a cost saver? Or something that will save wear and tear on your machine? Or your employees? Then the TIPS column is for you! Just send Barry Shepherd a fax at 905-459-6746, outlining your tip in less than a couple hundred words. You can include drawings, sketches, whatever. Thanks! These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Thermoforming QUARTERLY 38 These sponsors enable us to publish These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Thermoforming QUARTERLY American Thermoforming Machinery LLC Manufacture & Designer Oven Kits President New Controls Danny Blasch Complete Rebuilds 989.345.5394 Service Work 989.751.2262 cell www.americanthermoforming.com E-mail: dannyatm@gmail.com We need your continued support and your efforts on membership recruitment!! 39 Thermoforming QUARTERLY In Memoriam Robert Kostur T T he Thermoforming industry has lost one of its pioneer engineers this year with the passing of Robert Kostur. For those of you that did not know Bob, he was the founder of Comet Industries in 1955. He had built more than 5,000 thermoforming machines in the 45 years that he remained active in our industry. It has been said that Bob was responsible for creating much of the thermoforming process terminology that we use today; such as plug assist, snap back, air assist, etc. Bob Kostur’s innovations over the years have allowed our industry to be more competitive. He was always up to the challenge to develop new ways to process plastic for new applications. Following are just a few of the innovations that Bob helped introduce to our industry: • Utilizing double forming stations while sharing one oven (1955) • Began using electric motors instead of air cylinders to drive platens (1959) • Added forming air to the molds, known as air pressure forming (1962) • First to form a large part using the twin sheet process (1968) Bob was an accomplished author on various topics in thermoforming, with articles published in Modern Plastics, Plastics World and others. He was a long time member of the SPE, and had been a speaker at some of our conferences. As a testament to the durability of Mr. Kostur’s machinery design, his machines live on. Comet machines are still in operation throughout the world. Whenever you get the opportunity to view a Comet machine, please reflect for a moment, and in your own way, tell Bob thanks! ¦ These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY 2952 N. Leavitt x Chicago IL 60618 x Ph (773) 281-4200 x Fax (773) 281-6185 THERMOFORM TOOLING ---------- ---------- sales@umthermoform.comwww.umthermoform.com Thermoforming QUARTERLY 40 ® ® Society of Plastics Engineers MEMBERSHIP P.O. Box 403, Brookfield, CT 06804-0403 USA Tel: +1.203.740.5403 Fax: +1.203.775.8490 www.4spe.org APPLICATION ..CHECK ..VISA ..AMEX ..MASTERCARD card number expiration date (mm/yyyy) Checks must be drawn on US or Canadian banks in US or Canadian funds. My Primary Division is (choose from below) Company Name and Business Address (or College): company/college: job title: address: address: city: state: zip: country: (..) Preferred Mailing Address: ..Home ..Business Home Address: address: city: state: zip: country: Fax:Work Phone: Phone/Fax Format: USA & Canada: (xxx) xxx-xxxx All Others: +xx(xx) x xxx xxxx Email: used for society business only Birth Date: (mm/dd/yyyy) Gender: ..Male ..Female The SPE Online Membership Directory is included with membership. 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Home Phone: Demographics Job Function (choose only one) ..Consulting ..Purchasing ..Design ..Quality Control ..Education (Faculty) ..R & D ..Engineer ..Retired ..General Management ..Self-Employed ..Manufacturing ..Student ..Marketing/Sales ..Tech Support ..Other Materials (choose all that apply) ..Composites ..Polyolefins ..Film ..Polystyrene ..General Interest ..TPEs ..Nylon ..Thermoset ..PET ..Vinyls ..Foam/Thermoplastics ..No Interest Process (choose all that apply) ..Blow Molding ..Injection Molding ..Compression ..Mold Making ..Compounding ..Product Design ..Engineering Properties ..Rotational Molding ..Extrusion ..Thermoforming ..Fabrication ..General Interest ..Foam ..No Interest Students must supply graduation date: .. .. 41 Thermoforming QUARTERLY These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY ThermoformingQUARTERLY 42Roger Fox David A. J. Morgese (630) 653-2200 www.foxmor.com 1305 Lincoln Avenue, Holland, MI 49423 PH (800) 833-1305 / FX (800) 832-5536 www.allenx.com ABS ABSFR PCABS HIPS HIPSFR GELOY CENTREX LURAN NORYL SOLARKOTE A Tradition of Excellence Since 1970 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Innovative Tooling Materials for Thermoforming HYTAC®-WFT Plug Assist Material The First Syntactic to Meet FDA and European Compliance for Food Packaging CMT MATERIALS, INC. info@cmtmaterials.com www.cmtmaterials.com TEL (508) 226-3901 FAX (508) 226-3902 • Problem-solving, troubleshooting expertise. • Total in-house production. • Over 30 years of roll experience. • Repair and refinishing services. Call an Xaloy roll specialist today! Heat transfer solutions you can count on 800-897-2830 • 724-656-5600 • E-mail info@us.xaloy.com. • www.xaloy.com • Problem-solving, troubleshooting expertise. • Total in-house production. • Over 30 years of roll experience. • Repair and refinishing services. Call an Xaloy roll specialist today! Heat transfer solutions you can count on 800-897-2830 • 724-656-5600 • E-mail info@us.xaloy.com. • www.xaloy.com Thermoformer Parts Suppliers 3818 Terry Diane Beaverton, MI 48612 Phone: 800-722-2997 Fax: 989-435-3825 Email: tps@ejourney.com TPS THERMOFORMER PARTS SUPPLIERS www.thermoformerparts.com Great companies run in Packs Price Availability Convenience Knowledge Call the PACK at TPS today Same day shipping until 4pm EST on In-stock Items Doug Benton Standex Engraving Group 5901 Lewis Rd. Sandston, VA 23150 Ph: 804/236-3065 Fax: 804/226-3462 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY PRODUCTS / INC plastics......... RAY ™ The Experts in Thermoforming 1700 Chablis Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 909/390-9906 800/423-7859 FAX 909/390-9896 www.rayplastics.com CUSTOM CUT SHEET & ROLL FED MACHINERY OVEN, CONTROL & INDEX RETROFIT KITS PATENTED ADJUSTABLE CLAMP FRAMES 3031 GUERNSEY ROAD, BEAVERTON, MI PH: 989-435-9071 FAX: 989-435-3940 Email: info@modernmachineinc.com Brian Ray President brianr@rayplastics.com These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY Chill Rolls Optimized for You • Design analysis for better heat transfer. • Extrusion know-how from A to Z. ARES … CNC MACHINING CENTERS FOR MACHINING PLASTIC AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS ® CMS North America, Inc. www.cmsna.com Grand Rapids, MI www.cms.it 800.225.5267 Fax: 616.698.9730 cmssales@cmsna.com 43 Thermoforming QUARTERLY INDEX OF SPONSORS ADVANCED VENTURES IN TECHNOLOGY, INC. ................. 27 ALLEN EXTRUDERS .................... 42 AMERICAN CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGIES ....................... 37 AMERICAN THERMOFORMING MACHINERY ............................. 39 ALTUGLAS INTERNATIONAL ....... 12 BROWN MACHINE ....................... 38 CMS NORTH AMERICA ................ 43 CMT MATERIALS, INC. ................. 42 COPPER AND BRASS DIVISION .... 5 EDWARD D. SEGEN & CO. .......... 40 EXTREME ADHESIVES ................ 39 FOXMOR GROUP ......................... 42 FUTURE MOLD CORP. ................. 43 GN PLASTICS ............................... 36 IRWIN RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT .......................... 6 JRM INTERNATIONAL .................... 5 KIEFEL TECHNOLOGY ................. 39 These sponsors enable us to publish Thermoforming QUARTERLY SOLVE COST & PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS Kleerdex Company, LLC  Over 40 specialized grades  Certified Fire Ratings: 6685 Low Street satisfy highest performance – UL Std. 94 V-0 and 5V Bloomsburg, PA 17815 USA – UL 746C for signage to lowest cost applications: Tel: 1.800.325.3133 – FAR 25.853(a) and (d) Fax: 1.800.452.0155 – Aircraft – Class 1/A E-mail: info@kleerdex.com – Mass transit – MVSS 302 – Building products www.kydex.com – ASTM E-662/E-162 – Weatherable – Conductive/ESD  Broad Color Selection: – Multi-purpose – 34 Standard colors – 2000+ Custom colors  10 Surface Textures – Granite patterns  Thickness from 0.028” to 0.500” – Fluorescent colors – Woodgrain patterns ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 CERTIFIED Thermoformers We build machines that build business Special Machines Clamshell Sealers Blister Sealers Laboratory Sealers Sencorp thermoformers deliver repeatable, quality production parts at high cycle speeds. Available options include closed loop thermal imaging sheet scanning, adjustable shut height, deep draw, quick changeover master tooling and robotic part removal systems. Sencorp thermoformers provide you with a competitive edge over your competition. 400 Kidds Hill Road—Hyannis, MA 02601—USA P: 508 -771-9400 F: 508-790-0002 E: sales@sencorp -inc.com www.sencorp-inc.com KYDEX .......................................... 44 LANXESS ...................................... 27 LYLE .............................................. 29 MAAC MACHINERY ........................ 1 McCLARIN PLASTICS................... 42 McCONNELL CO. .......................... 37 MODERN MACHINERY ................ 43 ONSRUD CUTTER ........................ 36 PLASTICS CONCEPTS ................. 37 PLASTIMACH ................................ 38 PORTAGE CASTING & MOLD, INC............................................. 37 PREMIER MATERIAL CONCEPTS. 39 PRIMEX PLASTICS ....................... 42 PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES .. 42 PRODUCTIVE PLASTICS, INC. .... 37 PRODUCTO CORPORATION ....... 42 PROFILE PLASTICS ..................... 37 RAY PRODUCTS, INC................... 43 RAYTEK ........................................ 31 ROBOTIC PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY .......................... 35 RTP ............................................... 38 SELECT PLASTICS....................... 43 SENCORP ..................................... 44 SOLAR PRODUCTS ..................... 43 STANDEX ENGRAVING GROUP .. 43 STOPOL INC. ................................ 26 TEMPCO ELECTRIC ..................... 18 THERMWOOD CORP.......Inside Back Cover TOOLING TECHNOLOGY, LLC ..... 18 TPS ............................................... 43 ULTRA-METRIC TOOL CO. ........... 40 WECO PRODUCTS ...................... 27 WELEX, INC. ................................. 29 XALOY .......................................... 43 ZED INDUSTRIES ......................... 42 Thermoforming QUARTERLY 44

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